Cosmetics1.us

Best Biore Sunscreen

9 Things You Can Buy in Healthy Options

by Kaycee Enerva @ Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel

Healthy Options is a haven for natural, organic, and cruelty-free products. Especially when you go to their bigger stores like the one in EDSA Shangri-la, from edibles to cosmetics. You’ll find what you’re looking for here. What if you’re not looking for anything? What if you’re just curious on what Healthy Options has to offer? I have my staple favorites in their store but I decided to ask my friends what are their favorites. So I’m sharing it here on the blog for everyone to enjoy! ^_^ 9 Things You Can Buy in Healthy Options 1. SOLGAR Omega 3 I used to buy cenovis fish oil but when it got discontinued I found the perfect replacement in healthy options. The one solgar produces does not have any fishy scent or flavor. It smells like lemons and it works. 2. SOLGAR Cal-Mag-Zinc I’m not sure if you’re aware but I’m suffering from rheaumatoid arthritis and tourretes syndrome. My doctors recommended me to supplement myself with magnesium to relax my nerves and muscles. Calcium to prevent bone degredation, and zinc to strengthen my immunity. 3. Thayer’s Witch Hazel Toner Witch hazel toners are the best! The one from Thayer’s is alcohol-free and smells like roses. […]

The post 9 Things You Can Buy in Healthy Options appeared first on Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel.

Sunscreens Smackdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Mousse VS Watery Essence - Beauty for Brekkie

Sunscreens Smackdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Mousse VS Watery Essence - Beauty for Brekkie


Beauty for Brekkie

Hate thick sunscreens? I compare the bestselling Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence against the new Mousse version.

The Best Japanese Sunscreens for Beautifully Radiant Skin - Nylon Pink Official Website

The Best Japanese Sunscreens for Beautifully Radiant Skin - Nylon Pink Official Website


Nylon Pink Official Website

INDULGE YOUR SKIN WITH HYDRATION WHILE PROTECTING IT FROM HARMFUL SUN RAYS WITH THE BEST JAPANESE SUNSCREENS ON THE MARKET!

Best Cruelty-Free Sunscreens No Matter Your Budget

Best Cruelty-Free Sunscreens No Matter Your Budget


Cruelty-Free Kitty

Sunscreen should be an essential part of every person's skincare regimen. Here are my top 5 picks for the best cruelty-free sunscreens, for every budget.

Video: All Your Sunscreen and Make-up Questions Answered

by Michelle @ Lab Muffin Beauty Science

Or at least I hope all your sunscreen and make-up questions are answered! This video took me a bloody long time to research and put together, so I’m hoping I won’t have to revisit this topic again anytime soon. The questions I talk about: Do I need to wear sunscreen every day, even though I’ll...

Read More »

The post Video: All Your Sunscreen and Make-up Questions Answered appeared first on Lab Muffin Beauty Science.

crowdsourced multivitamin

by @ Articles - Articles

Extending maximum human lifespan will likely require a wide range of new biotechnology. Powerful interventions such as pharmaceuticals, stem cell technology, and gene therapy are in development but could be years or decades away from widespread implementation. During the intervening time the best way to ward off the ravages of disease and aging is to take care of yourself.

Members of LongeCity are keenly aware of this reality. That is why LongeCity forum discussions about exercise, nutrition, and supplements are very active and comprehensive. Members are constantly on the lookout for the latest research lending insight into which supplements are beneficial, cost-effective, and readily available.
Much has been made of the deficiencies of current multivitamin formulations and this has led to a community effort to design the “perfect multivitamin”.


In a long process of collaborative discussion, Members designed what in their view comes closer to the 'perfect' anti-aging supplement than any other product on the market.
LongeCity then found a partner in RevGenetics Ltd (FDA RegNo: 12757922694) to produce it.

Under the brand name VIMMORTAL the formula was promoted during 2011.Many members enjoyed the heavy discount that RevGenetics generously provided to LongeCity members.

After over a year of sales, members decided to revisit the formula. The inclusion of choline in particular proved controversial in light of current research. VIMMORTAL was stopped and a new group convened to collate suggested tweaks and improvements. The revised formula was relayed to the previous partner Revgenetics.

After many delays and extensions throughout 2012, it became clear eventually that Revgenetics was not going to take the second generation of the crowdsourced supplement further.
This is a setback for the project, in which LongeCity was at the forefront of connecting supplement sellers and consumers in an innovative dialogue at the cutting edge of nutritional supplement design. However, we are proud of this effort and the experience and data generated by it.

The VIMMORTAL formula is 'open source' and we are optimistic that another manufacturer/seller will see the opportunities of connecting directly with the life extension community to provide the 'ideal' supplement solution.

Check the Vimmortal project forum.

The Best Sunscreens for Not Feeling Like a Greased Sausage

The Best Sunscreens for Not Feeling Like a Greased Sausage


GQ

The best sunscreen is from Japan—featuring a water-weight, scentless formula that disappears on skin as if you weren’t wearing anything in the first place.

Innisfree Flagship in NYC — Now Open (yawn)

by Tracy Robey @ fanserviced-b

I Bought It Affiliate Links   Update! The Innisfree flagship is now open at 862 Broadway | New York, New York, NY 10003. I still don’t get the eco/green/clean hype (it’s a normal kbeauty brand with meh skincare formulations and surprisingly wearable makeup, read my mini reviews below for more on this), but that’s the […]

The post Innisfree Flagship in NYC — Now Open (yawn) appeared first on fanserviced-b.

LongeCity Connect

by @ Articles


Database of Experts, Advocates and Volunteers  
LongeCity has been 'the' forum for information exchange on life extension for over a decade. Over the years, many of the 'who is who' in the scene have visited the site, newcomers have used the site to educate themselves or as a springboard for new projects,  and many initiatives and rallying efforts have brought people together. 
However, in all that time we did not have a well-coordinated approach to networking. From time to time different efforts to reach out and connect were made but there were few tools in place to support such  initiatives, and they had to start from scratch each time. There was no database that can be searched for the right skills set, no 'register of interests' that can be used to connect volunteers around the globe... until we realized that the simplest and most effective way of  creating and maintain such a register was lying right in from of us in our database of users.
To leverage that resource and turn it into a powerful tool for networking, we have added new data fields. 
You can find these by here under 'volunteering'. As a privacy protection measure, the entries in these fields will be *viewable by members only* -at the very moment, you can only see your own entries.

Please update your profile here: if you have ever shared information this kind of information elsewhere on LongeCity, (i.e. in a forum thread or in a PM to the Members Secretary/Volunteer Coordinator) then please take a minute to enter the information in this register. We will look at doing some conversions manually, you yourself know best whether the info you supplied is still up-to date.  

This initiative is still very much in its infancy and we are looking forward to suggestions over the next few weeks and months how to make this into a powerfully effective networking tool.

Review: The New 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50+ PA++++!!!!

Review: The New 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50+ PA++++!!!!


Fifty Shades of Snail

Guys, I have an announcement. I’m engaged! Yes, that’s right. The new 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence sunscreen and I plan to elope soon. We will make our lifelong commit to each…

The Best Japanese SPF and Sunscreens – Musings of a Muse

The Best Japanese SPF and Sunscreens – Musings of a Muse


Musings of a Muse

I wanted to compile a rather small list of the best Japanese SPF and Sunscreens that I've personally used and loved for many a fine year. I've used a lot o

Why Bioré remains as my HG sunscreen brand

Why Bioré remains as my HG sunscreen brand


Project Vanity

Admit it: wearing sunscreen often feels like a chore. You know why you have to wear it on your face as well as all over your body everyday but - and here comes the drop - most days it's a hassle. The greasiness of the average drugstore high-SPF sunscreen is too much to deal with plus re-appl

Asian Sunscreen Showdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence vs Shiseido Senka Mineral Perfect UV Gel - Lab Muffin Beauty Science

Asian Sunscreen Showdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence vs Shiseido Senka Mineral Perfect UV Gel - Lab Muffin Beauty Science


Lab Muffin Beauty Science

This is part of a continuing series on sunscreens. The first installment with two physical sunscreens is here. One of my biggest issues with sunscreen is t

Review: Sofina Beauté UV Cut Emulsion NS SPF50 PA++++ (Fresh)

by Kerry @ Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog

It’s not a secret that I enjoy splurging on pricy skincare products – luxury skincare is one of my absolute favorite ways to treat myself. But sunscreen, which is the product I consider to be the most important product in my daytime skincare routine, is one product I actually don’t splurge on. To a non-regular-sunscreen-wearer, […]

The post Review: Sofina Beauté UV Cut Emulsion NS SPF50 PA++++ (Fresh) appeared first on Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog.

This $7 pump bottle is Beauty Water’s best friend

by Tracy Robey @ fanserviced-b

I Bought It Affiliate Links   I’ve had packaging lust since reviewing Sarah Chapman’s Skinesis Liquid Facial Resurfacer while on a hunt for the best lactic acid that could serve as a Good Genes dupe. While the Skinesis formula didn’t wow me, the bottle’s flip top and press-down dispenser had me heart eyes. I needed this […]

The post This $7 pump bottle is Beauty Water’s best friend appeared first on fanserviced-b.

Best Asian Sunscreens for Oily and Dry skin 2017 Review - Korea in Beauty

Best Asian Sunscreens for Oily and Dry skin 2017 Review - Korea in Beauty


Korea in Beauty

A fun review of 5 different Korean and Japanese sunscreens for oily and dry skin - as tested by two beauty addicts. Find your new holy grail!

Best Daily Sunscreens: Bioré UV + La Roche-Posay

by Mariève Inoue @ byMinoue

It was long overdue, but I’ve finally started wearing sunscreen on a daily...

Press Release: Koibito’s World of Gelato Set to Open Shop in Lipa City on October 1, 2017

by Kaycee Enerva @ Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel

Koibito’s World of Gelato Set to Open Shop in Lipa City on October 1, 2017 Lipa City, Batangas – September 18, 2017 – There’s an open secret in Lipa City. Koibito’s World of Gelato serves the best and most authentic gelato this part of the region. Since its inception on October 2, 2015, its customers had to go to their partner shops and restaurants in order to buy their pints. With the rising demands for a standalone shop, the Koibito’s World of Gelato is finally set to open up its own gelato shop in Lipa City on October 1, 2017. The Koibito’s story is a story of love. Its owner, Roger Monsale, gave up his childhood dream of being a pilot in order to be with his Lipeña wife, Angelina Lantin-Monsale, in her hometown of Lipa City. With his love for his wife only matched by his love for ice cream, Roger saw an opportunity to offer something to Lipeños – the best and most authentic gelato they’ve ever tasted. The Salted Caramel flavor is one of their most popular flavors. It all started when Roger got a taste of milk and ice cream in California. With this as inspiration, […]

The post Press Release: Koibito’s World of Gelato Set to Open Shop in Lipa City on October 1, 2017 appeared first on Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel.

Botanic Farm Grain Ferment Cleansing Serbet Review

by Peepingpomeranian @ Peepingpomeranian

Back in September Botanic Farm US reached out to me to try out some of their products. This was one of them, which worked out well for me since I wanted to try it ever since I heard people say this was the best cleansing sherbet evarrrr About the Brand At Botanic Farm, we believe ... [Read more...]

The Best Cha Ca In Hanoi Old Quarter: Cha Ca La Vong VS Cha Ca Thang Long

by Bun Bun @ Bun Bun Makeup Tips and Beauty Product Reviews

“Cha Ca! Fried fish!”, exclaimed the hotel receptionist with much enthusiasm when we asked her to recommend her favorite food in Hanoi Old Quarter. She specifically mentioned Cha Ca Thang Long at 21 Duong Thanh and mapped it out for us, reminding us, “MUST GO!”. Cha Ca is Vietnamese Style Fish with Turmeric & Dill, and […]

Bioré Top Products Review 2016: More From Bioré!

Bioré Top Products Review 2016: More From Bioré!


Maple Holistics

Managing pores can be a serious pain in the neck, but Bioré is here to help. Check out our Bioré Top Products Review to learn about the best in pore care!

Top 5 Best Sunscreen Creams for Acne Prone Skin in 2017 - BeSkinHost - Latest and In-depth Beauty and Skincare Tips & Reviews

Top 5 Best Sunscreen Creams for Acne Prone Skin in 2017 - BeSkinHost - Latest and In-depth Beauty and Skincare Tips & Reviews


BeSkinHost - Latest and In-depth Beauty and Skincare Tips & Reviews

Content Navigation Top 5 Sunscreen Cream For Acne Prone Skin Product SummaryReviews of the Best Sunscreen Cream for Acne Prone Skin#1 Eltamd UV Clear SPF 46#2 Biore KAO JAPAN AQUA RICH Sarasara#3 Skinceuticals Physical Fusion UV Defense#4 La Roche-Posay Anthelios 50 Mineral Tinted Ultra-Light Tinted Sunscreen Fluid#5 MDSolarSciences Mineral Tinted Crème Broad SpectrumAcne Prone Skin …

LongeCity Science Initiatives - Autumn 2011 review

by @ Articles - Articles

“To conquer the blight of involuntary death” is a complex task: political, economic, logistic, and social factors all play a role in making this dream a reality. Ultimately though, the challenge remains a scientific and technological one. We need to know more about the details of death and aging and we need to test as many different approaches as we can. Recently, LongeCity has sought to contribute to these endeavors in its own small ways. Scientific research and technological development is are complex fields and very costly to pursue. There must now be millions of scientist and technologists in the world – more than ever in the history of mankind and billions are spend on research and development. In the light of this, what difference can a small online forum really make? We don’t k now the answer, but we realized that just because the task is daunting, this does not mean that we cannot dare to attempt it: LongeCity wouldn’t exist it were otherwise. So we started, to try, in out own small way, to make contributions to life extension science. To be sure, there were our many contributions to scientific events and publications, including our own book and scientific conferences, there was support which we gave to scientific initiatives, such as the M-Prize and there was also the community-designed supplement VIMMORTAL an area which we are currently considering to revisit... but in terms of hands-on science, LongeCity now looks back at three specific projects:

The first one was ‘Laser Ablation of Lipofuscin’ – this project emerged after a presentation by Nason Schooler where he showed that, exposed to a certain wavelength of laser light, young worms remained unaffected whereas old worms died. This was considered to be due to lipofuscin – a buildup of age-associated debris in the old worms. What if such lipofuscin deposits could be broken down by the application of laser light, leaving the surrounding tissue unaffected? It sounded like a real longshot but Nason was keen to pursue it, he just needed some funding to do it. Nason was quizzed by LongeCity members and he held up well in the face of some probing questions. Most importantly, the trailblazing Dr. Aubrey de Grey and the SENS programme endorsed Nasons research, recommended him for funding and agreed to host him, his worms and lasers in their own laboratories in the US. Also, the project seemed a good fit: it was quirky enough that it would struggle to get funding from other sources, it was high-risk pot also potentially high impact perhaps opening the door to an entire new field of anti-aging science.

Based on this, we conducted some internal discussions including strategic ones and eventually agreed in a Full Members Referendum to commence a fundraiser – LongeCity’s (them still trading as the
Immortality Institute) first ever fundraiser purely dedicated to practical science. We committed $8000 from institute funds, but only if that amount would be matched by donations. The fundraiser was a great success quickly raising and even exceeding the target amount. With our backing, Nason commend work in the SENS labs – and then a couple of difficulties arose. First the labs moved, and Nason moved also, but soon needed to relocate again for personal reasons. What to do? We had transferred the funds raised to SENS. To be sure that was a good place to leave them considering the good work this organisation aims to do. However, our members had donated not to support SENS but expressly to support the Laser ablation research project. So we negotiated to get some of the remaining funds back from SENS (who were very supportive) but then agonised over how to proceed: should we just let Nason conduct the research in his garage? Many an internet business was started this way, but we still felt we needed some scientific oversight. Members can trace some of our discussions here, suffice it to say that after many attempts we could not get the oversight regime that we wished, but there was pressure of course to continue the research. We agreed to some research going ahead at Nasons home, even visited to see his setup and conduct and interview. In short, we did what we could and yet, based on recent developments it turned out that maybe we should have been more reluctant. What remains to be salvaged from this project remains to be seen.

The next project launched a year later, was more stringently planned: there was a call for applications, and we organised some peer review. Two projects emerged tat we really liked and we decided to fund both, in turn. The first one was again based on worms: it looked at the cellular ‘powerplants’ – the mitochondria that play a key role in aging and sought to investigate if if chemical uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) can reduce damage to mitochondria and their specific DNA and if this would lead to extended lifespan in worms.
Again, we managed to raise the money relatively swiftly, based on some very generous donations. Jan kept the community informed throughout. Regrettably, after funding the project, the community seemed to take little interest. To be honest, when first launching the project Jan and LongeCity leadership were a bit worried that given LongeCity’s large and vibrant supplement discussion forums, some people might jump to very unsafe conclusions and ingest the mitochondrial uncouplers under investigation as a supplement. However, rather than there being too much enthusiasm, there wasn’t a lot of engagement. Jan and his team pursued the research, in this case according to best scientific practice as expected, this month,Dr. Gruber will discuss the results with Mind in our podcast- If you are interested, you are invited to post a question!

But how many people maintained an active interest? Its difficult to say (let us know!) but we were getting a bit worried – were LongeCity members not quite ready to really engage with our own community science projects?

It was hard to dismiss that impression during the months to follow when we tried to raise funds for LongeCity's most ambitious science project yet. This was not on worms, it involved mice. In scientific terms (and as far as costs are concerned) that is a huge leap to make things more relevant. The project also wasn’t very complicated: it used stem cell therapies – something everyone has heard of and many LongeCity members are excited about. It targeted a hugely important area – the brain – and involved not the garage of a lay person but one of Germany’s most prestigious scientific institutions and a researcher with an established track record in anti-ageing research. Yet over the weeks and months to follow, fundraising was slow. Donations were trickling in, but not quite with the speed that were had seen before. Was this the recession beginning to bite? Was the project just too big? Was the community ‘tapped out’ after the recent fundraiser? Were we not managing to promote the project effectively enough? There were rough patches, but donations kept coming in and that gave us hope. We could not let those contributors down. An then the breakthrough – venture investor had somehow learned about the research and saw its potential. We waited until we felt confident that this separate arrangement would make up the (bye now not very large) shortfall in LongeCity funding. The project is now merrily underway and you see updates on the project and you can ask questions to the researchers here.

With that major success achieved should we now stop the science programme and reconsider? We might have done that, but then, this Summer, Cryonics Pioneer Robert Ettinger was placed into biostasis. What better way to pay homage to his achievements than not to dwell in length accolades but to ‘get on with it’ and do some research. Again, cryonics science is a great field for LongeCity to get involved it: it is niche enough that mainstream funding is hard to obtain, yet the potential impacts even based on a small research budget are quite significant. So last month we closed the call for expressions of interest on our first cryopreservation research fundraiser, the proposals have been circulated for peer review and the board will draw up a shortlist. As usual, our members will have the final say on funding in a referendum (so join now if you want to have a say), and as usual, the project will only get funded if it received enough matching donations.

Let us see how we fare with this project, but whatever the outcome, we are unlikely to give up on the underlying principle: that LongeCity has a role, however small, to not ‘just’ engage in communication, networking and outreach, but also to make a tangible contribution to hands-on scientific development. This is one of the reasons we change the ‘public facing’ name of the Immortality Institute – to make it easier for serious scientists to engage with us. And to this end, we have launched the LongeCity Science initiative, where aim to improve our scientific communication.
As an example, this month we have published the first of a number of ‘gentle introductions’ on scientific topics -- an article by Johan Sjöberg on crosslinking in aging) and we seek to involve every LongeCity Member and Affiliate with a science background. In fact, we have just issued a new call for Lead officers at the Immortality Institute (Members only) to expressly include a Science Officer. So why not join in, at whatever level you like, share your perspective and skills in pursuit of that ambitious mission: "to conquer the blight of involuntary death".

Nootropics in human trials (Intro)

by @ Articles

The word "nootropic" derives from the Greek words nous, or "mind", and trepein meaning "to bend or turn". It was first coined by Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea after synthesizing Piracetam.
For Giurgea a nootropic drug should have the following characteristics:
1. They should enhance learning and memory.
2. They should enhance the resistance of learned behaviors/memories to conditions which tend to disrupt them (e.g. electroconvulsive shock, hypoxia).
3. They should protect the brain against various physical or chemical injuries (e.g. barbiturates, scopalamine).
4. They should increase the efficacy of the tonic cortical/subcortical control mechanisms.
5. They should lack the usual pharmacology of other psychotropic drugs (e.g. sedation, motor stimulation) and possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

In fact, most drugs commonly labelled as nootropics do not fulfill all of these requirements. Some of the best known (e.g. Adderall, Modafinil) seem to not fulfill any, as discussed later. Instead, other characteristics like (reputed increased alertness, focus or motivation) seem to be key to their popularity.
Because of deviating definitions nootropics are more broadly defined (e.g. in wikipedia) as drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. 

Some nootropics from the very common to the :

Caffeine
Caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant (Nawrot, et al., 2003). It is used by over 90 % of North Americans every day (Mednick et al., 2008). It is widely used because of its positive effects on mood and alertness (Lorist & Tops, 2003)and vigilance and attention (Lieberman et al., 1987). However, these effects do not seem applicable / transferable to motor learning and verbal memory and are unable to reverse effects of sleep deprivation, with a dose of 200mg in low to moderate users (< than 2 cups a day) (Mednick et al., 2008). It is also shown to be ineffective in higher cognitive tasks involving working memory (Battig et al., 1984). Overall conclusions regarding the relation of caffeine and memory have been mixed. Positive effects might stem from caffeine withdrawal in high dosage users (Mednick et al., 2008).

Nicotine
With about 1,1 billion smokers worldwide in the year 2015 (WHO 2015) nicotine takes second place as the most widely used stimulant. It was shown that the application of nicotine in non-smoking males enhances performance in continuous performance tasks and therefore is said to improve attention and working-memory (Kumari, et al., 2003), which is in line with other studies suggesting that nicotine affects short-term memory in delayed free recall tasks (Sarah & Fox, 1998)
Another study examined nicotine’s effects on alertness and performance on a covert orienting task were measured. While nicotine decreased overall reaction times in the covert orienting task, there was no change in the validity effect, the reaction time difference between validly and invalidly cued targets. However, nicotine significantly improved both EEG and self-rated measures of alertness. Nicotine seems to increases alertness in non-smokers, with no improvement in spatial attention using a covert orienting task (Griesar et al., 2002). Furthermore Nicotine seems to reduce distraction under low perceptual load by acting as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness (Behler et al., 2015).

Methylphenidate/ Ritalin
Most college students I know will immediately think of Ritalin or Modafinil if they are asked to name a cognitive enhancer. Studies have found that 4.1% to 10.8% of college students in the US reported using prescription stimulants non-medically during the past year (Garnier-Dykstra, et al., 2012).
Methylphenidate (MPH - common brand name ‘Ritalin’) is used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Most studies focused on the its effects on Attention, Mood, Memory and executive functions. A single dose of MPH showed a positive effect on memory. Repeated doses of MPH had a mood elevating effect but also enhanced anxiety. No statistically significant effect was found in the outcomes attention, mood and executive functions. MPH had no significant effect on sleep-deprived individuals (Repantis et al., 2010). In a 2015 review the authors found some ‘publication bias’, relating to long-term and working memory and conclude that the effect in healthy subject is probably modest overall and that healthy users resort to stimulants to enhance their energy and motivation more than their cognition (Ilieva et al., 2015). 

Modafinil
Modafinil is used in treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Most studies focused on its effects on attention, mood, memory, wakefulness and executive functions and motivation. A single dose showed positive effects on attention only. On sleep deprived individuals it was shown to have an impact on executive functions, on memory and wakefulness but there was an insignificant effect on mood and attention (Repantis et al., 2010). A 2012 meta-analysis found that Modafinil was likely effective but criticised the gaps in the literature. (Kelley et al., 2012) 
A recent study on chess players found significantly enhanced performance with Modafinil or Ritalin but only when the players were not under time pressure (Franke et al. 2017). 

Adderall
Mixed Amphetamine Salts also known under the brand Name Adderall became increasingly popular in recent years as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer. Like Ritalin, it is also used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.
Overall effects of Adderall on cognition have been reviewed as very modest, while having a huge effect on perception. It was found to enhance performance in word recall, embedded figures and Raven's Progressive Matrices, but only for lower performing individuals (Ilieva et al., 2013). Adderall might also impair creativity in high performing individuals (Farah et al., 2009).

L-theanine & Caffeine
L- theanine is primarily found in plants (e.g. in the leaves of green and black tea) and fungus. Results evidently demonstrated that L-theanine clearly has a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in normal healthy subjects susceptible to having high anxiety (Higashiyama et al., 2011).
A dose of L-theanine equivalent to eight cups of black tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. The combination of Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses (Kahathuduwa et al.,2016).
Studies suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task (Giesbrecht 2010).

Bacopa Monnieri
Bacopa Monnieri is an herb which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. Bacopa's primary mechanism of action is still unclear, it seems to be an anti-oxidant, a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a cerebral blood flow activator (Aguiar & Borowski , 2013).
There is some evidence to suggest that Bacopa Monnieri improves memory with little evidence of enhancement in any other cognitive domains (Pase et al., 2012).

Piracetam
Closing the circle to the beginning of this short introduction to the topic: Giurgea first coined the term "nootropic" when he synthesized Piracetam in 1964. Since it is not approved by the US FDA, it is primarily used in Europe, Asia, and South America. It is commonly prescribed for cognitive impairment and dementia in several countries of Europe. Research suggests that Piracetam might also have a positive effect on healthy individuals. Subjects were given 3×4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased (Dimond & Brouwers, 1976). It might also be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with age. Aging subjects did significantly better in a computerized perceptual-motor tasks when on piracetam than on a placebo. (Mindus et al. 1976). While these old studies may not be that reliable, it is still held that Piracetam's “efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia. While high doses are sometimes necessary, piracetam is well tolerated” (Winblad, 2005). Since Piracetam was first synthesized many structurally similar compounds have emerged. These so called Racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems (Gualtieri et al., 2002).


This article is solely for information purposes, not a substitute for professional medical or dietary advice. 
The provisos of the LongeCity user agreement apply.

write for LongeCity



References
* Aguiar, S., & Borowski , T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research, 313-326. 
* Battig , K., Martin, J. R., & Feierabend , J. M. (1984). The effects of caffeine on physiological functions and mental performance. Experentia, 1218–1223.
* Behler , O., Breckel, T. P., & Thiel , C. M. (2015). Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load. Psychopharmacology, 1269-1277.
* Dimond, S. J., & Brouwers, E. M. (1976). Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology, 307-309.
* Farah , M., Haimm , C., Sankoorikal , G., Smith , M., & Chatterjee , A. (2009). When we enhance cognition with Adderall, do we sacrifice creativity? A preliminary study. Psychopharmacology,541-547.
* Franke, A.G.; Gränsmark, P., Agricola, A., Schühle, K., Rommel, T., Sebastian, A., Balló, H.E., Gorbulev, S., Gerdes, C., Frank, B., Ruckes, C., Tüscher, O., Lieb, K. (2017) "Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial" in: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol27, Issue 3, 1, pp248-260
* Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Arria, A. M. (2012).Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: Four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources. J Am Coll Health, 226-234.
* Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft , J. A., Rowson , M. J., & De Bruin , E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 283-290.
* Griesar , W. S., Zajdel , D. P., & Oken , B. (2002). Nicotine effects on alertness and spatial attention in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 185-194.
* Gualtieri , F., Manetti , D., Romanelli , M. N., & Ghelardini , C. (2002). Design and study of piracetamlike nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 125-138.
* Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 171-178.
* Ilieva, I., Boland, J., & Farah, M. (2013). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology, 496-505.
* Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. (2015) Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis.; J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Jun;27(6):1069-89. 
* Kahathuduwa, C. N., Dassanayake , T. L., Amarakoon , A. M., & Weerasinghe, V. S. (2016). Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutritional Neuroscience.
* Kelley, A.M.; Webb, C.M., Athy, J.R., Ley, S., Gaydos, S. (2012) "Cognition enhancement by modafinil: A meta-analysis" in Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine; Vol83, Issue 7, p685-690
* Kumari, V., Gray, J., H ffytche, D., Mitterschiffthaler, M., Das, M., Zachariah, E., . . . Sharma, T. (2003). Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 1002-1013.
* Lieberman , H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts , C., & Coviella, I. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 308-312.
* Lorist , M. M., & Tops, M. (2003). Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain Cognition, 82-94.
* Mednick, S. C., Cai, D. J., Kanady, J., & Drummond, S. P. (2008). Comparing the benefits of Caffeine,Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 79–86.
* Mindus , P., Cronholm , B., Levander , S. E., & Schalling , D. (1976). Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 150-160.
* Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood , J., Rotstein , J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 1-30.
* Pase, M. P., Kean , J., Sarris , J., Neale , C., Scholey , A. B., & Stough , C. (2012). The cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 647-652.
* Repantis , D., Schlattmann , P., Laisney , O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review. Pharmacological Research, 187-206.
* Sarah , P., & Fox, P. (1998). An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.Psychopharmacology, 429-433.
* WHO (2015). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data .
* Winblad, B. (2005). Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses. CNS Drug reviews, 169-182.

Which Sunscreens are best to use when Spray Tanning? - Tampa Bay Tan

Which Sunscreens are best to use when Spray Tanning? - Tampa Bay Tan


Tampa Bay Tan

The best sunscreen to use while spray tanning is: one your client will wear, and reapply regularly, as needed (every 2 hours when outdoors) 30 spf or greater (for daily wear) …

Best Pick: Biore UV Perfect Sunscreen Line (2015 formula)

Best Pick: Biore UV Perfect Sunscreen Line (2015 formula)


RatzillaCosme

Biore seem to be one of the few brands that I can rely on year after year to have truly lightweight sunscreens that I can use all year round. For winter and general everyday wear (i.e. you’re…

The Best Sunscreens in Korea This Summer, Plus Best Sunscreens for Oily Skin[2017]

by Giselle @ koglow

These are the I tried the best rated sunscreens in Korea this summer, and I found great options for Normal and Dry skin, and some really crazy good options for Acne prone or Oily skin and Combination skin. The sunscreens I tried have been consistently in the top 10 ranking from May-July of this year, […]

The post The Best Sunscreens in Korea This Summer, Plus Best Sunscreens for Oily Skin[2017] appeared first on koglow.

7 Best Sunscreens For Singapore

7 Best Sunscreens For Singapore


Teenage Magazine

Here’s the last installment of the Teenage Guide to Sunscreens (catch up on the first two parts: Knowing Your UVA to PA++++ and What Type of Sunscreen Is For You), and we’re picking out our fave sunscreens for the brutal Singapore weather.  Good for first time users Bioré UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF 50+ PA++++, $18.90 …

5 Of The Best Japanese Drugstore Sunscreens.

5 Of The Best Japanese Drugstore Sunscreens.


TOKYO BEAUTY BOOK

5 of the best Japanese drugstore sunscreen. This is a big one. This category is so HUGE in Japan that when I started to write this post, I was struck by how difficult (almost impossible!) it is to …

Brief Reviews of Everything Made by Glossier (Updated)

by Tracy Robey @ fanserviced-b

Puchased Using Referral Credit (99%) Affiliate Links Originally published 9 December 2016; updated 20 September 2017. I’ve been promising to review everything made by Glossier for some time — here’s the mega review, at last! I own all of it, not out of particular interest in the brand or products, but due to readers here […]

The post Brief Reviews of Everything Made by Glossier (Updated) appeared first on fanserviced-b.

[Beauty Review] Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50 PA+++ - Mypeaceofheaven

[Beauty Review] Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50 PA+++ - Mypeaceofheaven


Mypeaceofheaven

Now I'm a convert from Perfect Face Milk to the Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence!!

The Best Face Sunscreens, By Popular Demand

The Best Face Sunscreens, By Popular Demand


Into The Gloss

The full spectrum of the best face sunscreens that work sans breakouts or ghostly white pallor, as recommended by readers like you

Midyear Reveal: Wonect Bestsellers 2017!

by Wonect Team @ Wonect.Life

If you have you ever wondered what your peers are using, this article is for you! We have gathered the most popular products on Wonect.com, from January to June 2017, so please use it as a...

The post Midyear Reveal: Wonect Bestsellers 2017! appeared first on Wonect.Life.

Cosrx BHA Blackhead Cream Review

by Sheryll @ The Wanderlust Project

So I’m the opposite of most people. I impulsively buy something and then go home afterwards to read reviews. You gotta live life on the wild side, right? So when I went to the Cosmobeaute expo in Ho Chi Minh City around April of this year, I made a beeline for the cosrx booth and…

The post Cosrx BHA Blackhead Cream Review appeared first on The Wanderlust Project.

Melanin Maintenance: The Best Sunscreen For Brown Skin

Melanin Maintenance: The Best Sunscreen For Brown Skin


MadameNoire

Sunscreen protects your skin from sun damage, and many of the sunscreens on this list also reduce the appearance of discoloration and hyperpigmentation.

Nootropics in human trials (Intro)

by @ LongeCity - Articles

The word "nootropic" derives from the Greek words nous, or "mind", and trepein meaning "to bend or turn". It was first coined by Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea after synthesizing Piracetam.
For Giurgea a nootropic drug should have the following characteristics:
1. They should enhance learning and memory.
2. They should enhance the resistance of learned behaviors/memories to conditions which tend to disrupt them (e.g. electroconvulsive shock, hypoxia).
3. They should protect the brain against various physical or chemical injuries (e.g. barbiturates, scopalamine).
4. They should increase the efficacy of the tonic cortical/subcortical control mechanisms.
5. They should lack the usual pharmacology of other psychotropic drugs (e.g. sedation, motor stimulation) and possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

In fact, most drugs commonly labelled as nootropics do not fulfill all of these requirements. Some of the best known (e.g. Adderall, Modafinil) seem to not fulfill any, as discussed later. Instead, other characteristics like (reputed increased alertness, focus or motivation) seem to be key to their popularity.
Because of deviating definitions nootropics are more broadly defined (e.g. in wikipedia) as drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. 

Some nootropics from the very common to the :

Caffeine
Caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant (Nawrot, et al., 2003). It is used by over 90 % of North Americans every day (Mednick et al., 2008). It is widely used because of its positive effects on mood and alertness (Lorist & Tops, 2003)and vigilance and attention (Lieberman et al., 1987). However, these effects do not seem applicable / transferable to motor learning and verbal memory and are unable to reverse effects of sleep deprivation, with a dose of 200mg in low to moderate users (< than 2 cups a day) (Mednick et al., 2008). It is also shown to be ineffective in higher cognitive tasks involving working memory (Battig et al., 1984). Overall conclusions regarding the relation of caffeine and memory have been mixed. Positive effects might stem from caffeine withdrawal in high dosage users (Mednick et al., 2008).

Nicotine
With about 1,1 billion smokers worldwide in the year 2015 (WHO 2015) nicotine takes second place as the most widely used stimulant. It was shown that the application of nicotine in non-smoking males enhances performance in continuous performance tasks and therefore is said to improve attention and working-memory (Kumari, et al., 2003), which is in line with other studies suggesting that nicotine affects short-term memory in delayed free recall tasks (Sarah & Fox, 1998)
Another study examined nicotine’s effects on alertness and performance on a covert orienting task were measured. While nicotine decreased overall reaction times in the covert orienting task, there was no change in the validity effect, the reaction time difference between validly and invalidly cued targets. However, nicotine significantly improved both EEG and self-rated measures of alertness. Nicotine seems to increases alertness in non-smokers, with no improvement in spatial attention using a covert orienting task (Griesar et al., 2002). Furthermore Nicotine seems to reduce distraction under low perceptual load by acting as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness (Behler et al., 2015).

Methylphenidate/ Ritalin
Most college students I know will immediately think of Ritalin or Modafinil if they are asked to name a cognitive enhancer. Studies have found that 4.1% to 10.8% of college students in the US reported using prescription stimulants non-medically during the past year (Garnier-Dykstra, et al., 2012).
Methylphenidate (MPH - common brand name ‘Ritalin’) is used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Most studies focused on the its effects on Attention, Mood, Memory and executive functions. A single dose of MPH showed a positive effect on memory. Repeated doses of MPH had a mood elevating effect but also enhanced anxiety. No statistically significant effect was found in the outcomes attention, mood and executive functions. MPH had no significant effect on sleep-deprived individuals (Repantis et al., 2010). In a 2015 review the authors found some ‘publication bias’, relating to long-term and working memory and conclude that the effect in healthy subject is probably modest overall and that healthy users resort to stimulants to enhance their energy and motivation more than their cognition (Ilieva et al., 2015). 

Modafinil
Modafinil is used in treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Most studies focused on its effects on attention, mood, memory, wakefulness and executive functions and motivation. A single dose showed positive effects on attention only. On sleep deprived individuals it was shown to have an impact on executive functions, on memory and wakefulness but there was an insignificant effect on mood and attention (Repantis et al., 2010). A 2012 meta-analysis found that Modafinil was likely effective but criticised the gaps in the literature. (Kelley et al., 2012) 
A recent study on chess players found significantly enhanced performance with Modafinil or Ritalin but only when the players were not under time pressure (Franke et al. 2017). 

Adderall
Mixed Amphetamine Salts also known under the brand Name Adderall became increasingly popular in recent years as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer. Like Ritalin, it is also used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.
Overall effects of Adderall on cognition have been reviewed as very modest, while having a huge effect on perception. It was found to enhance performance in word recall, embedded figures and Raven's Progressive Matrices, but only for lower performing individuals (Ilieva et al., 2013). Adderall might also impair creativity in high performing individuals (Farah et al., 2009).

L-theanine & Caffeine
L- theanine is primarily found in plants (e.g. in the leaves of green and black tea) and fungus. Results evidently demonstrated that L-theanine clearly has a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in normal healthy subjects susceptible to having high anxiety (Higashiyama et al., 2011).
A dose of L-theanine equivalent to eight cups of black tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. The combination of Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses (Kahathuduwa et al.,2016).
Studies suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task (Giesbrecht 2010).

Bacopa Monnieri
Bacopa Monnieri is an herb which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. Bacopa's primary mechanism of action is still unclear, it seems to be an anti-oxidant, a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a cerebral blood flow activator (Aguiar & Borowski , 2013).
There is some evidence to suggest that Bacopa Monnieri improves memory with little evidence of enhancement in any other cognitive domains (Pase et al., 2012).

Piracetam
Closing the circle to the beginning of this short introduction to the topic: Giurgea first coined the term "nootropic" when he synthesized Piracetam in 1964. Since it is not approved by the US FDA, it is primarily used in Europe, Asia, and South America. It is commonly prescribed for cognitive impairment and dementia in several countries of Europe. Research suggests that Piracetam might also have a positive effect on healthy individuals. Subjects were given 3×4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased (Dimond & Brouwers, 1976). It might also be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with age. Aging subjects did significantly better in a computerized perceptual-motor tasks when on piracetam than on a placebo. (Mindus et al. 1976). While these old studies may not be that reliable, it is still held that Piracetam's “efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia. While high doses are sometimes necessary, piracetam is well tolerated” (Winblad, 2005). Since Piracetam was first synthesized many structurally similar compounds have emerged. These so called Racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems (Gualtieri et al., 2002).


This article is solely for information purposes, not a substitute for professional medical or dietary advice. 
The provisos of the LongeCity user agreement apply.

write for LongeCity



References
* Aguiar, S., & Borowski , T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research, 313-326. 
* Battig , K., Martin, J. R., & Feierabend , J. M. (1984). The effects of caffeine on physiological functions and mental performance. Experentia, 1218–1223.
* Behler , O., Breckel, T. P., & Thiel , C. M. (2015). Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load. Psychopharmacology, 1269-1277.
* Dimond, S. J., & Brouwers, E. M. (1976). Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology, 307-309.
* Farah , M., Haimm , C., Sankoorikal , G., Smith , M., & Chatterjee , A. (2009). When we enhance cognition with Adderall, do we sacrifice creativity? A preliminary study. Psychopharmacology,541-547.
* Franke, A.G.; Gränsmark, P., Agricola, A., Schühle, K., Rommel, T., Sebastian, A., Balló, H.E., Gorbulev, S., Gerdes, C., Frank, B., Ruckes, C., Tüscher, O., Lieb, K. (2017) "Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial" in: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol27, Issue 3, 1, pp248-260
* Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Arria, A. M. (2012).Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: Four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources. J Am Coll Health, 226-234.
* Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft , J. A., Rowson , M. J., & De Bruin , E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 283-290.
* Griesar , W. S., Zajdel , D. P., & Oken , B. (2002). Nicotine effects on alertness and spatial attention in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 185-194.
* Gualtieri , F., Manetti , D., Romanelli , M. N., & Ghelardini , C. (2002). Design and study of piracetamlike nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 125-138.
* Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 171-178.
* Ilieva, I., Boland, J., & Farah, M. (2013). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology, 496-505.
* Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. (2015) Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis.; J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Jun;27(6):1069-89. 
* Kahathuduwa, C. N., Dassanayake , T. L., Amarakoon , A. M., & Weerasinghe, V. S. (2016). Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutritional Neuroscience.
* Kelley, A.M.; Webb, C.M., Athy, J.R., Ley, S., Gaydos, S. (2012) "Cognition enhancement by modafinil: A meta-analysis" in Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine; Vol83, Issue 7, p685-690
* Kumari, V., Gray, J., H ffytche, D., Mitterschiffthaler, M., Das, M., Zachariah, E., . . . Sharma, T. (2003). Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 1002-1013.
* Lieberman , H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts , C., & Coviella, I. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 308-312.
* Lorist , M. M., & Tops, M. (2003). Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain Cognition, 82-94.
* Mednick, S. C., Cai, D. J., Kanady, J., & Drummond, S. P. (2008). Comparing the benefits of Caffeine,Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 79–86.
* Mindus , P., Cronholm , B., Levander , S. E., & Schalling , D. (1976). Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 150-160.
* Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood , J., Rotstein , J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 1-30.
* Pase, M. P., Kean , J., Sarris , J., Neale , C., Scholey , A. B., & Stough , C. (2012). The cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 647-652.
* Repantis , D., Schlattmann , P., Laisney , O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review. Pharmacological Research, 187-206.
* Sarah , P., & Fox, P. (1998). An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.Psychopharmacology, 429-433.
* WHO (2015). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data .
* Winblad, B. (2005). Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses. CNS Drug reviews, 169-182.

Which Biore Sunscreen Should I Choose? - Wonect.Life

Which Biore Sunscreen Should I Choose? - Wonect.Life


Wonect.Life

In this article, we make it easy for you to understand what benefits each Biore sunscreen provides, so you can choose the right one for you! ヽ(*⌒▽⌒*)ノ

YOLF's Blog - Why dreams are difficult to remember (sometimes)

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

So it occurred to me that there is a reason behind the phenomena of difficult to remember dreams. Imo, that reason is much the same as the reason that we forget things. Emotional volatility. When we're not fluid versions of ourselves or we're keeping ourselves all bottled up and being different people in different situations we're compartmentalizing our memories and will need to reassociate our memories across more dimensions of our personality. People with the extreme smart genes will naturally experience this memory transience despite having better long term, visual, and working memories than others and is in this writer's opinion the reason behind the absent minded professor syndrome many people experience. But don't think that b/c you're not in the upper echelons of intelligence that you won't be effected. Einstein once said that if you judge a fish by it's ability to climb a tree, it will live it's whole life thinking it's inferior. The distribution of some of the major effectors of intelligence is much more common than the number of people using them. One gene that creates up to a 25% increase in cognition will not only make you a better and more thoughtful friend and lover, but it's also held by about 25% of people, yet not everyone get's the whole benefit of it. We take supplements to get smarter, but for many, they may have capacities they aren't using or weren't taught to use. Many can skip a generation and the habits and behavior that creates or leverages the benefit associated with the gene is lost when children don't inherit it. So short of cloning, our upbringings will never be perfect enough to provide us with 100% translation of what might be called the operating system (our behavioral and personality traits) of our minds. Instead we focus on finding ourselves with things like flow states and that sort of thing. But what if genetics and psychoanalytics can double all the benefits people see from taking nootropics and be used to determine what exactly you're missing? Contact me. I'm offering life coaching that leverages your 23andme genotyping data to make the most of you possible.

 

I've been thoroughly impressed by the accomplishments of families who made the best of their traits with their children being very high performers simply for learning to use themselves 100%. And while I do advocate for giving everyone the gift of high intelligence genetics, I like to think of myself as part of the 100% crowd rather than the small fraction of a percent crowd in the sense that a great deal of benefit goes unused when we aren't adapted to it well enough.

5 Sunscreens with Amazing Reviews on Amazon

5 Sunscreens with Amazing Reviews on Amazon


InStyle.com

Say goodbye to greasy, smelly formulas.

The 23 Best Towns, Cities, Prefectures and Villages to visit in Japan

by nylonpink @ Nylon Pink Official Website

1. AkihabaraAlso known as Akiba. If you love having new gadgets, then Akihabara is your ultimate salvation for technology stores […]

The post The 23 Best Towns, Cities, Prefectures and Villages to visit in Japan appeared first on Nylon Pink Official Website.

Cryonics Hardship Fund

by @ LongeCity - Articles

Cryonics is a method of ‘medical time travel’ - placing the body in biostasis after legal death with the hope that future technology will be invented which can revive the body. To most people who share LongeCity’s mission cryonics is the ‘second worst thing’ that can happen to you, but nonetheless a viable alternative to burial or creation.

Cryonics prices vary (an overview can be found on this page maintained by Cryonics expert and LongeCity Advisor Ben Best) but it is affordable to nearly everyone via life insurance… nearly everyone. A few people who really want cryonics cannot get life insurance: After an accident, LongeCity Member James Swayze found himself quadriplegic and unable to get insurance. The life of LongeCity Member William O’Rights took a turn for the worst when he was diagnosed with aggressive throat cancer after having been suddenly deprived of all funds. Kim Suozzi was 23 and had not yet heard about cryonics when she was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. Aaron Winborn heard of her case - and cryonics- only when the debilitating effects of Lou Gehrig's Disease had already begun to paralyse him. All these people were eventually offered a cryonics provision through the generous donations of others in our community.
We want to continue this proud tradition, looking out for those who share our common dream in unlimited lifespans, in the shadow of imminent death and despair.

However, this needs to be done carefully. It cannot be stressed enough that cryonics is affordable to most people if they only have the foresight to act early and arrange affordable life insurance. This element of personal responsibility is at the heart not just of cryonics. If we establish a hardship scheme, it must not create a moral hazard, and incentive to put things off as too unpleasant and complicated to think about until it is too late. Of course, we must also ward against fraud and abuse. An element of careful analysis and due diligence is therefore required, looking into the circumstances of each individual case.

The LongeCity cryonics hardship fund has two purposes:
1) To support a (volunteer based) infrastructure for maintaining the scheme and exercising the due diligence mentioned above
2) When a hardship case has been endorsed by LongeCity, we will use the hardship fund to help to fundraise for that individual by matching further donations. All these donations will go to a dedicated account for that person’s cryopreservation, never to the individual directly.

Applicants to our cryonics hardship fund must
- co-operate fully with LongeCity appointed auditors and reviewers
- genuinely be unable to not fully fund their cryosuspension and not have a reasonable chance of doing so prior to their likely death
- help to fundraise for their cause and help raise public awareness for cryonics

In the past, we have partnered with our friend in the Venturist community on cryonic hardship cases. We hoping to do so again on future occasions.



Click HERE to make a contribution to the fund

To apply email the full details of your case: contact@longecity.org

The Best Sunscreens to Buy This Summer

The Best Sunscreens to Buy This Summer


Man Repeller

With summer approaching, here’s everything you need to know about sunscreen — plus the best sunscreens to stock up on.

A guide to understanding & choosing the best sunscreen – Geeky Posh

A guide to understanding & choosing the best sunscreen – Geeky Posh


Geeky Posh

Confused about all the jargon on sunscreen? PA? PPD? Broad Spectrum? Just how well does your sunscreen actually work? This guide explains everything…

Cryonics

by @ Articles - Articles

The following is a quick overview on Cryonics.

 

NB: The information below is periodically reviewed for accuracy, but LongeCity makes no representations or gives any warranties whatsoever that the following information is accurate and complete at any point in time. LongeCity accepts no responsibility or liability for information contained on this page. The discussion of cryonics service providers and services in no way entails any endorsement on part of LongeCity. The lead author of this page, its editors and other contributors from time to time may be affiliated with one of the service providers mentioned below. Without qualification to the foregoing disclaimers, LongeCity strives to present the following information in an objective and balanced manner. If you feel that information on this page is inaccurate or imbalanced please contact the LongeCity Support Email.

 

INDEX

Cryonics Overview

 

Cryonics is based on the idea that future medicine will have capabilities well beyond those of current medicine, including the ability to cure all diseases, rejuvenate and repair damage incurred in the cryopreservation process — through the use of nanotechnology and other technologies. Cryonics can be an ambulance or time capsule to future medicine which can allow us to live many thousands of years or longer in youth and good health. Stored at very low temperatures there will be very little molecular motion in cryonics patients for tens of thousands of years, although most of us do not believe that we will have to wait anywhere near so long for future medicine.

 

Although cryonics patients must be legally dead before cryonics procedures to reduce or eliminate ischemic damage and ice formation can be applied, cryonicists do not believe that cryonics patients are dead in an ultimate sense. Nearly all the cells of the body are alive for quite some time after the heart stops — including neurons. A standby team can be used to minimize the time between pronouncement of death and cooling, cardiopulmonary support, etc. Cryonicists believe that the anatomical basis of mind can survive much longer than six minutes after stoppage of the heart in the absence of cooling — despite the inability of current medicine to revive patients without neurological damage after more than six minutes of cardiac arrest. (See Quantifying Ischemic Damage for Cryonics Rescue for more details.)

 

Existing Cryonics Organizations

 

For most of cryonics history (which began in the mid-1960s), all of the cryonics organizations offering cryonics services have been in the United States. In 2005 a cryonics organization was created in Russia (just northwest of Moscow) and there are plans for another cryonics organization in Australia to offer perfusion and storage of cryonics patients within a few years. LongeCity does not endorse any particular cryonics organization. The data below is taken from the cryonics organizations without LongeCity attempting to verify the accuracy of their claims or the extent of the services they claim to provide. If you are considering utilizing any of these organizations, you should conduct your own investigation.

 

NAMELOCATIONINCORPORATEDNON-PROFIT ?
Alcor Life Extension FoundationScottsdale, Arizona1972Yes
American Cryonics Society (ACS)Cupertino, California1969Yes
Cryonics Institute (CI) Clinton Township, Michigan1976Yes
KrioRus Moscow, Russia2005No
Oregon Cryonics Salem, Oregon2005*No
Suspended Animation, Inc (SA) Boynton Beach, Florida2002No
Trans Time, Inc.San Leandro, California1972No

 

Alcor Life Extension Foundation and the American Cryonics Society (ACS) are organized as 501©3 charitable organizations, whereas the Cryonics Institute (CI) is simply a non-profit corporation. Although Suspended Animation, Inc. (SA) is ostensibly a for-profit company, it is mainly engaged in research and development of cryonics capabilities financed by the principals of the Life Extension Foundation. By 2012 KrioRus had relocated to a facility closer to Moscow, but a newer facility is being built midway between Moscow and St. Petersburg.

 

Oregon Cryonics was incorporated in 2005, but accepted its first patient (a pet patient) in May, 2014. Jordan Sparks is the owner/operator, but he has plans for a Board of Directors or other mechanism to out-live him (to allow for the organization to continue).

 

Cryonics Services Offered

 

Not all cryonics services are offered by all cryonics organizations. Patient administration service is offered by cryonics organizations that sign-up Members who are to be cryopreserved upon legal death and maintain responsibility for those Members while they are Patient's in cryopreservation storage. Perfusion is the replacement of normal body fluid with cryoprotective solutions to reduce or prevent ice formation at cryogenic temperatures. Storage is the storage of a cryonics patient in liquid nitrogen. Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) involves standing by the bedside of a medically terminal patient destined to be cryopreserved, the application of a heart-lung resuscitator and ice-water cooling as soon as possible after declaration of death,and transport to a perfusion facility while tissues are still being stabilized at low temperature.

 

The following table represents the services which cryonics organizations say they provide.

 

NAMEPATIENT ADMINISTRATIONPERFUSIONSTORAGESST
AlcorYesYesYesYes
ACSYesYes*No*Yes*
CIYesYesYesNo*
KrioRusYesYesYesNo
Oregon CryonicsYesYesYesNo
SANo*NoNoYes
Trans TimeYesNoYesNo
*=simplification, see explanation

 

All standby cases done for Alcor Foundation outside of Arizona, but inside the continental United States are handled by Suspended Animation, Inc (SA). Alcor does standby for Alcor Members who are terminal in Arizona, Hawaii, and Alaska as well as in Canada. SA does not provide SST services outside the continental United States for any organization.

 

The American Cryonics Society (ACS) states that it mainly contracts with Suspended Animation,Inc. (SA) for perfusion and standby/transport, and contracts with the Cryonics Institute (CI) for storage. ACS also states that it has equipment, contractors and volunteers which are available for use in perfusion and standby in California should the need arise, although this is far less sophisticated and formal than what SA provides. ACS creates and manages individual charitable trusts for its patients. ACS regards these trusts as an important feature of the benefit gained by being an ACS Member.

 

Cryonics Institute (CI) Members who reside in the continental United States have the option of contracting directly with SA if they desire professional SST.In some cases volunteers or paid funeral directors have provided these services to CI Members. SA will keep records of CI Members who have arranged to have SA SST, but does not continue any administrative responsibility after the patient has been cryopreserved.

 

Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

Sizes of the Organizations

 

There are various ways by which organization size could be measured, but for the purposes of this section size is represented by the number of Members in the organization, the number of patients currently being stored in liquid nitrogen and the number of full-time paid staff in the organization. The figures below are for April 2017, and are based on the statements of the organization in question.

 

NAMEMEMBERSFUNDED MEMBERSPATIENTSSTAFF
Alcor1,639*1,132*1509*
ACS?*?*20*1*
CI1,384*?*151*3*
KrioRusN/AN/A527*
Oregon Cryonics8*N/A65*
SAN/AN/AN/A3*
Trans Time??31?
*=simplification, see explanation

 

The Membership statistics reported above are for living Members only. Both Alcor and CI patients are Members (except for the ACS patients at CI). The American Cryonics Society (ACS) has an organizational policy against publishing the number of Members it has in its organization. As of April 2017 the 20 ACS patients were all in storage at the Cryonics Institute (CI). ACS has had one part-time clerk to do office work and has otherwise relied on volunteers. Alcor has 9 full-time staff, 1 consultant, and 1 regular volunteer. The 151 patients in storage at CI includes 20 ACS patients. KrioRus has no Membership program, and the method of counting patients is odd — a few are not stored by KrioRus. KrioRus has 4 full-time and 3 part-time employees as well as numerous volunteers.

 

CI is a subcontractor for storage of 20 ACS patients. CI has three paid staff (two full-time and one part-time), a few contractors and many volunteers. Accounting is done by CI Treasurer Pat Heller (a CPA) with auditing by another CI Director. Trans Time does not report its Membership numbers. Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) only to other cryonics organizations (ACS, Alcor and CI), so it has no Members or Patients — so the reporting of Members or Patients for SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A). SA makes extensive use of subcontractors when needed.

 

As of April 2017, CI reported 136 pets, Alcor reported 58 pets, KrioRus reported 21 pets, and Oregon Cryonics reported 2 pets in cryopreservation.

 

Alcor and CI member numbers are not directly comparable because the word "Member" has different meanings for the two organizations. Membership in CI provides the privilege of obtaining cryopreservation services: pet, DNA or human cryopreservation. Many join CI only to store DNA or pets or to support CI, including some Alcor Members. Some Alcor Members have even made arrangements to use CI as a "back-up". Alcor does not allow its Members to have Alcor as a "back-up". Prior to April, 2012, all Alcor Members had made arrangements (ie, funding and contracts in place) for human cryopreservation and SST, but in April 2012 the Associate Alcor Member program was introduced. Associate Alcor Members do not have any cryopreservation arrangements with Alcor.

 

ForApril 2017, Alcor reported 1,639 living Members, 1,132 of whom had made arrangements for human cryopreservation, and 357 of whom were Associate Members. Of the 1,384 CI Members in April 2017, 212 of those had made arrangements for both human cryopreservation and standby/stabilization/transport (all with SA). In September 2015, CI ceased reporting how many of it Members have funding and contracts for cryopreservation. Historically, less than half of CI Members have been funded (prior CI statistics). Since 2006, CI offers a 'partnership' arrangement for CI Members for SA SST.

 

As noted in the previous section, Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

In 2011 and 2012 SA reorganized its staff to have more part-time employees and contractors, and for much of 2012 and 2013 SA was re-organizing to have facilities in both California and Florida.

 

Oregon Cryonics has an owner (Jordan Sparks) and four other full-time employees. OC has 9 Members, but is no longer accepting new Members..

 

Accounts of patient histories and membership growth can be found at:
--Cryonics Institute (CI) Patient Details
--Cryonics Institute (CI) Statistics Details
--Complete List of Alcor Cryopreservations
--Alcor Membership Statistics

 

Whole Body/Neuro Options

 

The term neuropreservation (or "neuro") generally refers to the practice of cryopreserving only the head rather than the whole body. A "neuro" is usually a whole head, not just the brain, but sometimes only the brain is cryopreserved. Keeping the whole head to preserve the brain is convenient for both perfusion and storage (the skull protects the brain). In some cases, however, "neuros" are brain-only. The following represent options various organizations say that they offer.

 

NAMEWHOLE BODYNEURO
AlcorYesYes
ACSYesNo*
CIYesNo
KrioRusYesYes
Oregon CryonicsNoYes
SAN/AN/A
Trans TimeYesYes
*=simplification, see explanation

 

Alcor states that its Members have the option of having their whole body cryopreserved or only their head ("neuro") — with different fees applicable to each choice. In April 2017, Alcor reported having 93 neuro, 54 whole body, and 4 neuro+whole bodypatients, whereas KrioRus reported 25 neuro and 27 whole-body patients. Trans Time has one whole body and two brains.

 

All CI Members with human cryopreservation arrangments are "whole body". ACS states that it does not have a policy against neuropreservation, but as long as it only uses CI as its subcontract or for storage it cannot offer neuro-cryopreservation as an option. Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides Standby/Stabilization/Transport only to other cryonics organizations, not storage, so the question of storage options with SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A).

 

Oregon Cryonics only stores heads and brains. As of February, 2016 Oregon Cryonics was chemically preserving three human brains, and cryopreserving one dog brain.

 

Cryopreservation and Yearly Fees

 

Comparing fees for human cryopreservation and yearly Membership or Emergency Responsibility is difficult to summarize in table form because the policies, procedures and options between the cryonics organization are so different. A great deal of explanation is required. Note that the high prices for human cryopreservation are generally covered by life insurance policies. The following represent the fees that the following organizations state that they charge.

 

NAMEWHOLE BODYNEUROYEARLY FEES
Alcor$200,000*$80,000*$620*
ACS$155,000*N/A$376*
CI$28,000*N/A$120*
KrioRus$36,000*$12,000None
Oregon CryonicsN/A$25,000*None
SAN/AN/ANone
Trans Time$150,000$50,000$96*
*=simplification,see explanation

To Alcor's yearly fee of $620 annual dues, those living in the United States and Canada must add $180 yearly SST fees for a total of $800 per year. A lifetime payment plan is also available. SST service is not available to Alcor Members outside of the US and Canada, but a $15,000 surcharge is added to whole body and neuro prices in the United Kingdom, and a $25,000 surcharge is added to the prices paid by those living in other countries. For details on Alcor pricing, see Schedule A: Required Costs and Suspension Funding Minimums.

 

The prices given for the American Cryonics Society (ACS) are intended to reflect comparable service to what Alcor provides. In fact, ACS has a very wide menu of options and prices available, including reference to a "California Procedure" which is intended to be distinguished from the"Michigan Procedure" offered by the Cryonics Institute. The yearly fee for an ACS Member is $376 for the first four years and $300 per year thereafter. For details on ACS options and fees, see:www.americancryonics.org.

 

The Cryonics Institute (CI) charges $28,000 for perfusion and storage of a Lifetime Member and $35,000 for a Yearly Member. These prices do not include funeral director costs or shipment to CI for non-local cases. (When CI was begun it was imagined that every state would have at least one cryonics service provider.) The Lifetime CI Member has paid a one-time $1,250 fee and the Yearly CI Member has paid a $75 initiation fee and is paying a $120 yearly fee. Discounts for additional family members and underage family members apply only to Lifetime Memberships. For service more comparable to what Alcor provides — including Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) — a Lifetime Member pays $88,000 and a Yearly Member pays $95,000. For details on CI pricing see Membership andDetails Concerning SA Standby and Transport for CI Members.

 

For $49,000 KrioRus states that it offers Russians (Europeans?) the option of shipment and storage at the Cryonics Institute in the USA.

 

Oregon Cryonics charges $25,000 to cryopreserve a whole head, $18,000 for a brain with braincase, and $14,000 for a brain without the braincase. Oregon Cryonics will chemically preserve a brain for as little as $1,000 (see Oregon Cryonics Service Fees for details).

 

As noted in previous sections, Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides SST only to other cryonics organizations, not Membership or storage, so the question of these options with SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A).

 

Human Cryopreservation Procedures

 

Human cryopreservation procedures are much too complex to be summarized effectively here.

 

Alcor's procedures are summarized on a page of the Alcor website called Alcor Procedures. But is it also very helpful to read actual case reports of Alcor patients in the Cryopreservation Case Reports section of the Alcor website library.

 

CI has a summary of its procedures on its website calledGuide to Cryonics Procedures. CI procedures do not include Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST), though CI will advise Members on obtaining assistance through local funeral directors. CI Members residing in the continental United States who wish to obtain SST can do so by subcontracting with Suspended Animation, Inc. (SA).

 

Although the American Cryonics Society (ACS) has equipment and volunteers which could be used if necessary, ACS basically relies on SA for Standby/Transport and CI for Perfusion/Storage.The human cryopreservation procedures of Trans Time and KrioRus are not documented on their websites.

 

Funding Cryonics by Insurance
The cost of cryonics is many thousands of dollars, but most cryonicists cover these costs with life insurance policies that name a cryonics organization as beneficiary. Premiums of life insurance policies are most affordable for those who are young and healthy. It is not prudent to seek life insurance in old age or after a terminal illness (when life insurance may be unobtainable). Nor is it prudent to believe that cryonics arrangements can be made efficiently or successfully when in a terminal condition.

 

Rudi Hoffman sells the great majority of cryonics life insurance policies. It makes good sense to take advantage of Rudi's considerable expertise in matters of cryonics and life insurance. (A sincere and unpaid plug for Rudi.)

The Best Tricks That Worked For My Acne

by Bun Bun @ Bun Bun Makeup Tips and Beauty Product Reviews

At the risk of jinxing myself, I decided to write this post to share some weird things I do to cope with acne. The occasional zits make their appearance, but when it comes to my skin, I have been conditioned to be easily contented. Don’t expect to see flawless, baby smooth skin on my face. I don’t ask for […]

2017 Biore Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel: First Impressions - fanserviced-b

2017 Biore Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel: First Impressions - fanserviced-b


fanserviced-b

In this first impressions post, I show off the 2017 Biore Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel and provide some ingredients and swatches.

Ganni Is All I Want to Wear Right Now

by Amelia Diamond @ Man Repeller

The post Ganni Is All I Want to Wear Right Now appeared first on Man Repeller.

Aging theories: Is there a unifying factor in a...

by @ Articles

When Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was established, biologists were puzzled by the existence of senescence and aging among all organisms. Why did the evolutionary pressure not produce immortal species? They concluded that even the power of evolution has its limitations. It took almost hundred years to reach the idea that mortal individuals may be preferred by nature for following reasons — the genes resulting in advantage in early life might cause damage in late life, and the reproduction starts as soon as possible. Around the middle of twentieth century, there finally was a framework for the gerontological research conduced in the following decades — the first evolutionary theories of aging (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). 
There are two major groups of theories aiming to explain the mechanism of aging, so-called programmed and error theories. The programmed ones are based on the senescence-causing nature of certain genes (these are also called evolutionary theories), hormones or the immune system. Error theories claim that we age because of general damage caused by cell weariness, metabolic rate, cross-linked proteins, free radicals or somatic DNA changes (Jin, 2010).
The beauty of various aging theories is that most of them are not mutually exclusive. We can see that newer theories do not necessarily oppose the old ones, but rather shed more light and offer more in-depth views on the process of senescence.
The pioneering idea from 1882 was Weismanns’s theory of programmed death (also called wear-and-tear theory) claiming something like apoptosis of the multicellular organism. Although disproved by experiments, his theoretical explanation of the mechanism predicted the discovery of Hayflick limit (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). According to Weismann’s first conception, nature priorities young individuals over elderly because of limited resources. Pearl stated his ‘rate of living’ theory of aging in 1928, although the idea comes from Rubner who, in 1908, suggested that every organism has limited amount of metabolic energy and therefore its age depends on the rate of metabolism which correlates with organism’s size (Pearl, 1928). Most consider the rate of living theory to be flawed (Lints, 1989; de Magalhaes, Costa, & Church, 2007; Vaanholt, Daan, Schubert, & Visser, 2009).
A few decades later, the following evolutionary models have emerged: Medawar’s hypothesis of mutation accumulation proposes that aging is a by-product of natural selection — genes causing senescence in later stadium of life cannot be eliminated because the genetic information was most likely already transferred to successors by individuals in their early adulthood (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). This theory from 1952 is considered the first modern theory of aging. Charlesworth confronted Medawar’s model with a discovery of late-life mortality plateaus and in 1994 presented so-called modified mutation accumulation theory (Charlesworth, 2001; Ljubuncic & Reznick, 2009). In his antagonistic pleiotropy theory (also called ‘pay later’ theory), Williams in 1957 expressed the idea that even the same genes which cause trouble at advanced age may be advantageous in earlier stages of life, and therefore be not only tolerated, but even preferred by natural selection (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). In 1979, Kirkwood extended this theory to the disposable soma theory — organisms may save energy by reducing accuracy in cells metabolism and invest it in faster development and reproduction (Kirkwood & Holliday, 1979). This is the last one of famous, genes-orientated evolutionary models.
The following can be classified as programmed theories: The neuroendocrine theory proposed in 1954 by Dilman says that the main cause of aging is a loss of receptor sensitivity of the hypothalamus over time, and therefore its control of adequate production of hormones declines which leads to ineffectiveness and lower hormone levels in organism. It is an attempt to explain a high occurrence of degenerative diseases in late age (“Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging: Chapter 1,” 1999). Research on hormonal signaling pathways confirms that hormone levels have at least a partial role in determining longevity (van Heemst et al., 2005). In 1964, Walford suggested his immunologic theory of aging — due to increasing diversity of cells, the immune system looses its efficiency with age which leads to insufficient responses against pathogens as well as to autoimmune reactions against self proteins (Walford, 1964). 
All following attempts to explain the mechanism behind a process of aging are usually called error or damage theories. Bjorksten’s "crosslinkage theory" says that proteins become linked together in presence of certain crosslinking agents, and after some time, accumulation of these molecular aggregates causes decline in tissue functions. This theory from 1942 is no longer popular (Bjorksten, 1968). Later research has showed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in collagen and lead to outcomes predicted by Bjorksten (Verzijl et al., 2002; Aronson, 2003). 
These days very popular among researchers and public, the free radical theory was suggested by Harman in 1956. His idea was that the occurrence of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species naturally produced in living organisms, leads to macromolecular damage which accumulates and causes physiological changes known as senescence (Harman, 2009). Later he suggested the reactive oxygen species formation takes place mainly in mitochondria which causes a decline in important mitochondrial functions (Harman, 1972). Because of the theory’s popularity, various extensions of Harman’s model were created, usually considering different sites as a main target of free radicals. 
Failla’s somatic mutation theory from 1958 posits that increasing number of mutations of genetic material causes a decrease in cellular, organ and body functions (Failla, 1958; Gensler & Bernstein, 1981; Kennedy, Loeb, & Herr, 2012). The theory received a lot of criticism in previous decades (Vijg, 2000). Kaya, Lobanov and Gladyshev (2015) investigated aging in yeast and failed to find evidence in support of Failla’s thesis. 
Orgel proposed his error catastrophe theory in 1963. He saw the cause of aging in accumulation of malfunctioning proteins coming from errors during protein translation (Orgel, 1963). This theory never gained popularity and was soon disproved (Gershon & Gershon, 1976). 
Alexander in 1967 extended Failla’s theory by hypothesizing that DNA damage instead of mutation is the cause of aging (Alexander, 1967). These days, this version called "somatic DNA damage theory of aging" is more often used by scientists (Freitas & de Magalhaes, 2011; Soares et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that more damage happens in mitochondrial DNA than in nuclear DNA (Ames, 2009).
In 2002, Brunk and Terman published the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory. It states that defective macromolecules derived from mitochondria undergo further changes in lysosomes to become lipofuscin inclusions. These end products decrease cell’s autophagocytotic capacity which leads to more mitochondrial defects (Brunk & Terman, 2002). 
Zs.-Nagy’s "membrane hypothesis" focuses on a decline of mitochondrial functions due to lessened membrane permeability caused by residual heat coming from nerve signals as well as by reactive oxygen species (Zs.-Nagy, 2014). 
Recent versions of damage theories claim that free radicals are only one kind of senescence-causing by products of metabolism but the real initiator of all the inevitable damage is biological imperfectness. In other words, there are always types of damage which lack adequate repair mechanisms in organism and the most severe source of errors depends on actual conditions (Gladyshev, 2013; Gladyshev, 2014). This idea comes from the "reliability theory", which focuses on systems failure in machines (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2001). In spite of many research programs and lots of scientists involved, the unifying factor in aging is at the moment still unknown.

References



The above is a short perspective by Vit Zemanek. Continue the discussion and analysis on LongeCity's long-running AGING THEORIES forum.

J.W. Anderson x Uniqlo Is the Best Collab in Years

by Pandora Sykes @ Man Repeller

The post J.W. Anderson x Uniqlo Is the Best Collab in Years appeared first on Man Repeller.

Sunscreen showdown 2K16: Review of Biore, Missha, TonyMoly, Sunbears and Holika Holika Sunscreens

Sunscreen showdown 2K16: Review of Biore, Missha, TonyMoly, Sunbears and Holika Holika Sunscreens


Peepingpomeranian

Followers on my Instagram (@peepingpomeranian) and Snapchat (@peepingpompom) have already seen some of the testing and peeks at how the different sunscreens in my collection fared. But for the rest…

Best Sunscreen: Bioré UV Perfect Spray SPF50+ PA++++

Best Sunscreen: Bioré UV Perfect Spray SPF50+ PA++++


CLEO Singapore

Bioré UV Perfect Spray SPF50+ PA++++, $9.90 We all know that sun protection is a must to shield against damage, but cream-based sunscreens can leave our skin sticky and mess with our perfect makeup. Enter Bioré UV Perfect Spray SPF50+ PA++++, which features a light and cooling spray-on formula that can be used over makeup,... Read more »

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel Review - The Wanderlust Project

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel Review - The Wanderlust Project


The Wanderlust Project

I wasn't an avid sunscreen wearer until I found the Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence.

Why You Shouldn't Be Buying Your Sunscreen in America

Why You Shouldn't Be Buying Your Sunscreen in America


Racked

When Kristin Francis, a consultant living in Jersey City, visits Europe, she comes home with bottles of foreign sunscreen. Francis considers sunscreen from Europe the perfect souvenir, seeing as...

8 Reasons to reach out to 'the public'

by @ Articles

While the idea that drastic life extension may be an option for humankind in the future has been encountered by many through the media and fiction, the vast majority of the public do not grasp whether and how this could realistically apply to them or their loved ones. 
 
Some argue that since life is an universally desirable good and age-related suffering and death universally feared and avoided, ‘public perception’ is something that will take care of itself. If anything, the inherent attractiveness of the concept will always guarantee media interest perhaps even to the point of generating unwarranted hype and the empty promises that have been the bane of the scientific life extension movement for centuries. 
 
Others argue, with great conviction, that public perception and ‘marketing a life extension movement’ should be a prime objective. Here is a list of eight reasons why:  
 
1. Broaden the pool of ideas. Generally, the more minds are altered to and focused towards a common objective, the greater the chance than innovative or groundbreaking ideas will be generated. If Life Extension is a more broadly known, accepted and prestigious topic of interest, more bright minds will be attracted to it.  
 
2. Increase public sector funding and donations. As businesses tend to fund research only when profitability is close it often falls to the public sector and philanthropists to fund the "starter end" of research that will eventually lead to usable products which business will then want to take up. 
 
3. Reduce opposition.  There is an element of ‘shock’ associated with the concept that aging and death may not be inevitable which can lead to denial or impatient dismissal. Visceral or ideological opposition to life extension translates into less government funding, less scientific interest, less favorable laws and less industry support especially if there is no widely established counter-position.   
 
4. Improve regulation.  Whether we are thinking about laws allowing or prohibiting life extension treatments in general, or the speed and efficiency at which the FDA similar entities conduct their reviews, the support of government agencies is important at every stage of the process of getting treatments to the public. Responsive regulation can be generated through public pressure and media attention. 
 
5. Focus corporate interests towards effective treatments.  Only if there is a clear and well-informed demand for proven and validated treatments will effective products become more profitable to the industry than ineffective ‘snake oil’.
 
6. Build economies of scale.  Given the urgent need for life extension treatments for many people there is an interest in helping to bring costs down as soon as possible. If pent-up public demand becomes more clearly visible, consideration of scale-up will become a part of more business plans and healthcare reforms. 
 
7. Improve public health.  A focus on life extension often comes with increased health consciousness. Prevention is better and cheaper than cures and if more people participate in a wider programme of health-conscious living, this is likely to bring overall healthcare costs down.
 
8. Reduce social unrest and disruption.  Even once society accepts the concept of life extension and associated treatments there will still be people who are unwilling or unable to participate. Moreover, extended lifespans will affect society profoundly. Careful public engagement ensures that social unrest and discrimination can be minimised.  
 
If at least one of these reasons makes sense to you, then you may want to think about how you could help ‘connect’ the LongeCity’s mission with others. Generally, the ‘self-multiplying’ effect of outreach should not be underestimated. People act as role models and influencers of their peers. Beyond all media spin, if a person acts and speaks with conviction, others will take note; and if people realize that their friends and family members could live longer they will be more willing to engage in the idea themselves.  
 
 
-- 
This article is based on an original drafted by Sanhar in response to a LongeCity tender.

Wolf has been Cried So Very Many Times When it Comes to Anti-Aging Therapies

by @ LongeCityNews

If you look at the media coverage of work on senolytic therapies, treatments that can clear out senescent cells and thus remove the contribution of these cells to the aging process, it is usually the case that there isn't much to distinguish it from the coverage of any random claim of progress towards anti-aging effects from either within or outside the scientific community: supplements, vitamins, diets, pharmaceuticals, and so forth. None of these other items work in the sense of repairing some of the cell and tissue damage that causes aging. The few that do slow aging do so marginally and in many cases unreliably. The output of the press is not the place one should be looking for accuracy or enlightenment, and it is futile to either demand or expect it to become any better than it is at the moment. Nonetheless, it is somewhat frustrating to see this in action now that the world is changing, and the first means of producing actual rejuvenation is almost upon us.

One could probably construct a metric of press quality that progresses in a spectrum from the worst tabloid to the best popular science effort, constructed on the basis of whether one can see any difference in the coverage of, say, the effects of senolytics on longevity (significant) and the effects of blueberry consumption on longevity (non-existent). Are objective measures offered? Is the tone exactly the same? Is the hypothetically entirely ignorant reader left thinking that senolytics and blueberries are in the same bucket of expected benefit? Or how about senolytics and antioxidant supplements? Or senolytics and whatever the diet of the month happens to be today? Or senolytics and metformin? Or senolytics and vitamin C? And so forth.

One of the problems here is that much of the press has a very limited number of buckets with which to categorize things, and an equally limited set of output formats. This is how they work cost-effectively when not being paid to propagate a specific viewpoint. So once a thing is tagged as "someone claims this can treat aging," into the same bucket as blueberries and metformin it goes, and the public at large is duly informed - with no attempt to draw any sort of distinction of truth, quality, or expected value to patients. Thus we live in a world in which everyone is told, repeatedly, that ways of turning back aging exist. Since we are in fact all aging to death, no-one believes this to be true. Or if they do, they know that the effects are obviously small and limited, or involve papering over aging in some way without much affecting the self-evident fact that people get old and die. Smoke and mirrors.

Now, I think that the public at large is generally smarter than most journalists credit. Media is primarily used as a way to note the advent of new things and changes in existing things, not as a resource for specific details. Even when the quality is terrible, it is better than trying to find out yourself, even if finding out for yourself was a practical possibility. However, this system breaks down in the scenario in which the media treats all new things in a category as being different shades of the same item. Blueberries and senolytics, just colors of blue or red on the same basic model. People then filter out these updates as being just background noise, and rationally so until now.

I have a vision of what will happen after the first human trials of senolytics demonstrate promise: much of the press will mangle this into something that looks exactly the same as a discussion of the alleged (and entirely non-existent) power of blueberries. It won't be the case that the populations of the world will suddenly awake to the possibilities. Only the parts of it that were already paying attention. Even after significant short-term benefits in human patients are demonstrated to result from the targeted removal of senescent cells, there will still be a need for advocacy and outreach to pull in significantly more funding to the field. That process of fundraising will certainly become easier, but it won't be the case that senolytics will the very next day be a word heard on every street corner.

There is a saying regarding the fact that every good idea needs to be forced upon people, following them to every venue, and waved under their noses until they have no choice but to consider it. It will be that way for the first rejuvenation therapies. It will probably be that way for the second, because they will be different, and work in different ways. Progress in creating the foundations of the future medical industry of rejuvenation becomes incrementally less challenging to engineer the more that the benefits are proven, but it will never become simply easy.


View the full article at FightAging

Best Pick: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel

Best Pick: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel


RatzillaCosme

My first proper sunscreen review of 2015! I imagine that there will be lots of cheers because so many of you have asked for recommendations and updates, but also a few groans, because some would ra…

Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Face Sunscreen SPF 50/ PA+++

Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Face Sunscreen SPF 50/ PA+++


Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog

The first time I used Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen, my immediate thought was, “Oh good, the perfect sunscreen! Sunscreen chemists, you can all go home now. Nice job, everyone!” Then …

YouQueen's Favorites: Best Sunscreens For Every Skin Type

YouQueen's Favorites: Best Sunscreens For Every Skin Type


YouQueen

If you want to step up your beauty game and protect your skin while enjoying the sunshine, check out our list of best sunscreens for every skin type. Your skin will thank you!

RiRe Lip Powder review

by Peepingpomeranian @ Peepingpomeranian

Ohhh Lippies, lip stick, lip gloss I am not the best at reviewing these since I barely ever wear them. I much rather use lip balm, masks or oils. I did try tints but I am so not used having color on my mouth I can’t bear to use it. Which is why this review ... [Read more...]

5 Asian Beauty Finds: The Best Sunscreens for Oily Skin

5 Asian Beauty Finds: The Best Sunscreens for Oily Skin


koglow

I spent a month testing Asian brands to find the best sunscreens for oily skin. These sunscreens won't leave you blotting your make up away.

Longecity Blog - win$100 for 'best regimen'

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

The forum structure at the heart of LongeCity works well in facilitating a free flow of communication and information exchange.
Other more structured ways of curating information have their own advantages, but their adoption appears to be more difficult.

 

In 2014 we closed the 'regimen' forums for brain enhancement and general supplements in favour of a new 'stacks' function.
aiming to generating a searchable database of combinations as an easily accessible resource.

 

It took some time for the new feature to gain traction. In some areas this worked ok, in others we still don't have any entries.

 

To further promote the feature we are launching a small COMPETITION for the BEST REGIMEN in each category.

 

On Sept.1st LongeCity leadership will draw up a shortlist of the most promising entries for each existing category:

  • Life Extension, General Health;
  • Alertness, Cognition, Mood
  • Sports, Performance, Bodybuilding
  • Medical
  • Weight Loss
  • Beauty, Cosmetics, Skin, Anti-Aging
This shortlist will be based (but not necessarily bound) by the average of the "star ratings" an entry has received from all LongeCity readers!
The Immortality Institute Members will then vote on a winner from each shortlist
The winner in each category* will receive $100 (via paypal) and 100.

 

(* yes, that means that the winning chance in the currently empty, or sparsely populated categories might be higher)

 

At least for the duration of the competition, the old 'stacks' forums will re-open. We hope that by now everyone has understood the distinction we are aiming for: the 'regimen' feature is for presenting and discussing structured regimens that can be considered, compared and potentially adopted by others down the ages, the forums are for more free-wheeling conversation that might be more speculative, protracted and less likely to hold a swift take-away message for others.

Are these the perfect sunscreens for the face?

Are these the perfect sunscreens for the face?


basics and neutrals

Two face sunscreens that are lightweight, non-greasy and close to invisible.

The 8 Best Foundations for Sensitive Skin (Cruelty-Free Options)

by Aly Laughlin @ Cruelty-Free Kitty

As someone who almost never uses foundation because of how sensitive my skin is, I can completely relate to the struggle of finding a good foundation for sensitive skin. If I use the wrong product, my face can literally break out in hives! But in the name of science, I’ve tried out many foundations over […]

The post The 8 Best Foundations for Sensitive Skin (Cruelty-Free Options) appeared first on Cruelty-Free Kitty.

New Report Reveals Majority of Sunscreens May Harm Cyclists - Health I.Q.

New Report Reveals Majority of Sunscreens May Harm Cyclists - Health I.Q.


Health I.Q.

A new study of 750 sunscreens done by EWG (Environmental Working Group), revealed that over 75% of sunscreens on the market are not effective in guarding skin cancer and have harmful chemicals that may harm skin.

REVIEW: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF50+ PA++++ - Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel

REVIEW: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF50+ PA++++ - Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel


Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel

Sunscreen is a must! I can never reiterate enough how important sun protection is. Even if you have dark skin and don’t really burn, you need broad spectrum sun protection every day. Besides sunburns and cancer;  sun rays can cause premature aging and dark spots. Who wants that? It’s recommended you use about 1/4 teaspoon on your face, as well as about 1/4 teaspoon on your neck. It’s also recommended you use a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and is broad spectrum, which means it blocks both UVB and UVA rays. SPF measures UVB (Burn) protection and PA ratings measure UVA (Aging) protection. The Biore Watery Gel sunscreen offers high protection in both areas. Brand – Biore Product – UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF50+ PA++++ Price – 450php Where to Buy? Watson’s Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF50+ PA++++ REVIEW Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel SPF50+ PA++++ sunscreen is housed in a generous 90 ml bottle, and has a gel consistency that absorbs into the skin right away. It is a chemical sunscreen that works best for daily, limited sun exposure wear (don’t go to the beach or running outside with only this sunscreen, it isn’t sweat or waterproof). It …

Cryonics Hardship Fund

by @ Articles

Cryonics is a method of ‘medical time travel’ - placing the body in biostasis after legal death with the hope that future technology will be invented which can revive the body. To most people who share LongeCity’s mission cryonics is the ‘second worst thing’ that can happen to you, but nonetheless a viable alternative to burial or creation.

Cryonics prices vary (an overview can be found on this page maintained by Cryonics expert and LongeCity Advisor Ben Best) but it is affordable to nearly everyone via life insurance… nearly everyone. A few people who really want cryonics cannot get life insurance: After an accident, LongeCity Member James Swayze found himself quadriplegic and unable to get insurance. The life of LongeCity Member William O’Rights took a turn for the worst when he was diagnosed with aggressive throat cancer after having been suddenly deprived of all funds. Kim Suozzi was 23 and had not yet heard about cryonics when she was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. Aaron Winborn heard of her case - and cryonics- only when the debilitating effects of Lou Gehrig's Disease had already begun to paralyse him. All these people were eventually offered a cryonics provision through the generous donations of others in our community.
We want to continue this proud tradition, looking out for those who share our common dream in unlimited lifespans, in the shadow of imminent death and despair.

However, this needs to be done carefully. It cannot be stressed enough that cryonics is affordable to most people if they only have the foresight to act early and arrange affordable life insurance. This element of personal responsibility is at the heart not just of cryonics. If we establish a hardship scheme, it must not create a moral hazard, and incentive to put things off as too unpleasant and complicated to think about until it is too late. Of course, we must also ward against fraud and abuse. An element of careful analysis and due diligence is therefore required, looking into the circumstances of each individual case.

The LongeCity cryonics hardship fund has two purposes:
1) To support a (volunteer based) infrastructure for maintaining the scheme and exercising the due diligence mentioned above
2) When a hardship case has been endorsed by LongeCity, we will use the hardship fund to help to fundraise for that individual by matching further donations. All these donations will go to a dedicated account for that person’s cryopreservation, never to the individual directly.

Applicants to our cryonics hardship fund must
- co-operate fully with LongeCity appointed auditors and reviewers
- genuinely be unable to not fully fund their cryosuspension and not have a reasonable chance of doing so prior to their likely death
- help to fundraise for their cause and help raise public awareness for cryonics

In the past, we have partnered with our friend in the Venturist community on cryonic hardship cases. We hoping to do so again on future occasions.



Click HERE to make a contribution to the fund

To apply email the full details of your case: contact@longecity.org

Beauty Ed Cynthia Chew’s Top 10 Picks – Fall’s Hottest Makeup

Beauty Ed Cynthia Chew’s Top 10 Picks – Fall’s Hottest Makeup

by Cynthia @ CLEO Singapore

Makeup that you'll fall in love with.

The post Beauty Ed Cynthia Chew’s Top 10 Picks – Fall’s Hottest Makeup appeared first on CLEO Singapore.

2017 vs 2015 Biore Watery Rich Aqua Gel and Essence: Comparison Review & What Sunscreens You Should Use Instead

2017 vs 2015 Biore Watery Rich Aqua Gel and Essence: Comparison Review & What Sunscreens You Should Use Instead


Vanity Rex

Biore recently reformulated the widely beloved Biore Aqua Rich watery Essence and Biore Aqua Rich Watery Gel released in 2015. I’ve been using the 2017 versions of the essence and gel for a f…

Review: Bioré UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel - Berries In The Snow

Review: Bioré UV Aqua Rich Watery Gel - Berries In The Snow


Berries In The Snow

Of course with summer approaching everybody thinks of sun protection, but even in winter you should use your daily dose of UV protection for your face. UV radiation will not only cause visible and accute skin damage (like sunburn), but...

Top 5 Best Sunscreen for Rosacea – 2017 Reviews and Top Picks

Top 5 Best Sunscreen for Rosacea – 2017 Reviews and Top Picks


Beauty Shortcutips

Getting the right sunscreen for your skin is very difficult. Add Rosacea to the already difficult situation and you get a minefield of a challenge. Well, based on research we have done, and advice from professionals, we have come up with a clear and easy-to-follow guide to getting the best one for you. Rosacea is …

Aging theories: Is there a unifying factor in a...

by @ LongeCity - Articles

When Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was established, biologists were puzzled by the existence of senescence and aging among all organisms. Why did the evolutionary pressure not produce immortal species? They concluded that even the power of evolution has its limitations. It took almost hundred years to reach the idea that mortal individuals may be preferred by nature for following reasons — the genes resulting in advantage in early life might cause damage in late life, and the reproduction starts as soon as possible. Around the middle of twentieth century, there finally was a framework for the gerontological research conduced in the following decades — the first evolutionary theories of aging (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). 
There are two major groups of theories aiming to explain the mechanism of aging, so-called programmed and error theories. The programmed ones are based on the senescence-causing nature of certain genes (these are also called evolutionary theories), hormones or the immune system. Error theories claim that we age because of general damage caused by cell weariness, metabolic rate, cross-linked proteins, free radicals or somatic DNA changes (Jin, 2010).
The beauty of various aging theories is that most of them are not mutually exclusive. We can see that newer theories do not necessarily oppose the old ones, but rather shed more light and offer more in-depth views on the process of senescence.
The pioneering idea from 1882 was Weismanns’s theory of programmed death (also called wear-and-tear theory) claiming something like apoptosis of the multicellular organism. Although disproved by experiments, his theoretical explanation of the mechanism predicted the discovery of Hayflick limit (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). According to Weismann’s first conception, nature priorities young individuals over elderly because of limited resources. Pearl stated his ‘rate of living’ theory of aging in 1928, although the idea comes from Rubner who, in 1908, suggested that every organism has limited amount of metabolic energy and therefore its age depends on the rate of metabolism which correlates with organism’s size (Pearl, 1928). Most consider the rate of living theory to be flawed (Lints, 1989; de Magalhaes, Costa, & Church, 2007; Vaanholt, Daan, Schubert, & Visser, 2009).
A few decades later, the following evolutionary models have emerged: Medawar’s hypothesis of mutation accumulation proposes that aging is a by-product of natural selection — genes causing senescence in later stadium of life cannot be eliminated because the genetic information was most likely already transferred to successors by individuals in their early adulthood (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). This theory from 1952 is considered the first modern theory of aging. Charlesworth confronted Medawar’s model with a discovery of late-life mortality plateaus and in 1994 presented so-called modified mutation accumulation theory (Charlesworth, 2001; Ljubuncic & Reznick, 2009). In his antagonistic pleiotropy theory (also called ‘pay later’ theory), Williams in 1957 expressed the idea that even the same genes which cause trouble at advanced age may be advantageous in earlier stages of life, and therefore be not only tolerated, but even preferred by natural selection (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). In 1979, Kirkwood extended this theory to the disposable soma theory — organisms may save energy by reducing accuracy in cells metabolism and invest it in faster development and reproduction (Kirkwood & Holliday, 1979). This is the last one of famous, genes-orientated evolutionary models.
The following can be classified as programmed theories: The neuroendocrine theory proposed in 1954 by Dilman says that the main cause of aging is a loss of receptor sensitivity of the hypothalamus over time, and therefore its control of adequate production of hormones declines which leads to ineffectiveness and lower hormone levels in organism. It is an attempt to explain a high occurrence of degenerative diseases in late age (“Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging: Chapter 1,” 1999). Research on hormonal signaling pathways confirms that hormone levels have at least a partial role in determining longevity (van Heemst et al., 2005). In 1964, Walford suggested his immunologic theory of aging — due to increasing diversity of cells, the immune system looses its efficiency with age which leads to insufficient responses against pathogens as well as to autoimmune reactions against self proteins (Walford, 1964). 
All following attempts to explain the mechanism behind a process of aging are usually called error or damage theories. Bjorksten’s "crosslinkage theory" says that proteins become linked together in presence of certain crosslinking agents, and after some time, accumulation of these molecular aggregates causes decline in tissue functions. This theory from 1942 is no longer popular (Bjorksten, 1968). Later research has showed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in collagen and lead to outcomes predicted by Bjorksten (Verzijl et al., 2002; Aronson, 2003). 
These days very popular among researchers and public, the free radical theory was suggested by Harman in 1956. His idea was that the occurrence of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species naturally produced in living organisms, leads to macromolecular damage which accumulates and causes physiological changes known as senescence (Harman, 2009). Later he suggested the reactive oxygen species formation takes place mainly in mitochondria which causes a decline in important mitochondrial functions (Harman, 1972). Because of the theory’s popularity, various extensions of Harman’s model were created, usually considering different sites as a main target of free radicals. 
Failla’s somatic mutation theory from 1958 posits that increasing number of mutations of genetic material causes a decrease in cellular, organ and body functions (Failla, 1958; Gensler & Bernstein, 1981; Kennedy, Loeb, & Herr, 2012). The theory received a lot of criticism in previous decades (Vijg, 2000). Kaya, Lobanov and Gladyshev (2015) investigated aging in yeast and failed to find evidence in support of Failla’s thesis. 
Orgel proposed his error catastrophe theory in 1963. He saw the cause of aging in accumulation of malfunctioning proteins coming from errors during protein translation (Orgel, 1963). This theory never gained popularity and was soon disproved (Gershon & Gershon, 1976). 
Alexander in 1967 extended Failla’s theory by hypothesizing that DNA damage instead of mutation is the cause of aging (Alexander, 1967). These days, this version called "somatic DNA damage theory of aging" is more often used by scientists (Freitas & de Magalhaes, 2011; Soares et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that more damage happens in mitochondrial DNA than in nuclear DNA (Ames, 2009).
In 2002, Brunk and Terman published the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory. It states that defective macromolecules derived from mitochondria undergo further changes in lysosomes to become lipofuscin inclusions. These end products decrease cell’s autophagocytotic capacity which leads to more mitochondrial defects (Brunk & Terman, 2002). 
Zs.-Nagy’s "membrane hypothesis" focuses on a decline of mitochondrial functions due to lessened membrane permeability caused by residual heat coming from nerve signals as well as by reactive oxygen species (Zs.-Nagy, 2014). 
Recent versions of damage theories claim that free radicals are only one kind of senescence-causing by products of metabolism but the real initiator of all the inevitable damage is biological imperfectness. In other words, there are always types of damage which lack adequate repair mechanisms in organism and the most severe source of errors depends on actual conditions (Gladyshev, 2013; Gladyshev, 2014). This idea comes from the "reliability theory", which focuses on systems failure in machines (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2001). In spite of many research programs and lots of scientists involved, the unifying factor in aging is at the moment still unknown.

References



The above is a short perspective by Vit Zemanek. Continue the discussion and analysis on LongeCity's long-running AGING THEORIES forum.

Tips For Maximizing Your Time When Shopping

by Kaycee Enerva @ Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel

I can’t tell you how many times I’ve gone to the grocery store thinking it was only half an hour when in actual fact, I ended up spending at least two hours inside. Grocery shopping is already tedious at best, so why not try to save a little time to use for you or your family? It also doesn’t help that shopping is an unavoidable part of every day life. It might be difficult to get started, but take a look at these time management tips – https://www.adaptrm.com/blog/time-management-skills to make your shopping trip that much more enjoyable and efficient. Time It Most of you know that there are times when the grocery store is simply packed. If you go when there are more people, it takes that much longer to navigate the aisles and get out. So that you’ll avoid the tediousness of waiting in line at the counter, try to find a time when less people are there and forget about evenings, Sunday afternoons and prime time on Saturday. Plan Your Meals Before you end up at the store, write down the list of all bakeware sets as well as ingredients you’ll need for each dish. This eliminates the […]

The post Tips For Maximizing Your Time When Shopping appeared first on Top Beauty and Lifestyle Blog on Makeup, Skincare, Fitness, Tech, Food, Travel.

Everyday Staples: 10 Cruelty-Free & Vegan Body Washes You’ll Love

by Aly Laughlin @ Cruelty-Free Kitty

Here are the 10 best cruelty-free and vegan body washes so you can keep animal testing and animal products out of your shower! These are mostly drugstore products (a few options being budget-friendly) with a couple of luxury items, and many of these are made from natural ingredients. 1. Nubian Heritage Abyssinian Oil & Chia […]

The post Everyday Staples: 10 Cruelty-Free & Vegan Body Washes You’ll Love appeared first on Cruelty-Free Kitty.

LongeCity Connect

by @ LongeCity - Articles


Database of Experts, Advocates and Volunteers  
LongeCity has been 'the' forum for information exchange on life extension for over a decade. Over the years, many of the 'who is who' in the scene have visited the site, newcomers have used the site to educate themselves or as a springboard for new projects,  and many initiatives and rallying efforts have brought people together. 
However, in all that time we did not have a well-coordinated approach to networking. From time to time different efforts to reach out and connect were made but there were few tools in place to support such  initiatives, and they had to start from scratch each time. There was no database that can be searched for the right skills set, no 'register of interests' that can be used to connect volunteers around the globe... until we realized that the simplest and most effective way of  creating and maintain such a register was lying right in from of us in our database of users.
To leverage that resource and turn it into a powerful tool for networking, we have added new data fields. 
You can find these by here under 'volunteering'. As a privacy protection measure, the entries in these fields will be *viewable by members only* -at the very moment, you can only see your own entries.

Please update your profile here: if you have ever shared information this kind of information elsewhere on LongeCity, (i.e. in a forum thread or in a PM to the Members Secretary/Volunteer Coordinator) then please take a minute to enter the information in this register. We will look at doing some conversions manually, you yourself know best whether the info you supplied is still up-to date.  

This initiative is still very much in its infancy and we are looking forward to suggestions over the next few weeks and months how to make this into a powerfully effective networking tool.

The must-buy sunblock!  Word-of-mouth Toplists in Japan

The must-buy sunblock! Word-of-mouth Toplists in Japan


KiKOU Japan

This article is about the high quality sunscreen, the essential cosmetics in summer especially for women. Here we are going to show you the five top rank sunscreens form the cosmetic sites which got good reputations in Japan. Get one and try, all available in pharmacies (drug stores) and convenience stores.

20 Best Sunscreens For Singapore's Weather - The Singapore Women's Weekly

20 Best Sunscreens For Singapore's Weather - The Singapore Women's Weekly


The Singapore Women's Weekly

It's getting hot and sunny in Singapore, so cover up with 10 of the best sunscreens you can use to defend against UV damage.

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel Review

by Sheryll @ The Wanderlust Project

Hey hey! I’m going to let you in on a little secret. I wasn’t an avid sunscreen wearer until 2 years ago when I moved to Vietnam. When I was living in Korea, I’d use it sporadically, mostly because I couldn’t really find anything that wasn’t super thick, oily, was tinted, or left a gray/white…

The post Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence and Watery Gel Review appeared first on The Wanderlust Project.

The Purse-Packing Strategy You Didn’t Know You Needed

by Harling Ross @ Man Repeller

The post The Purse-Packing Strategy You Didn’t Know You Needed appeared first on Man Repeller.

K-beauty Trends: K-beauty Pop Up Shop, Best Korean Beauty Hair Products, and Are you sleeping on Sulwhasoo?

by Giselle @ koglow

The latest K-beauty trends are about the best Korean beauty hair products, a new K-beauty Pop Up Shop, and Sulwhasoo. Let’s dig in! Remember to keep back to get more trends every Saturday! K-beauty Trends: K-beauty Pop Up Shop, Best Korean Beauty Hair Products, and Are you sleeping on Sulwhasoo? The K-beauty Pop Up Shops […]

The post K-beauty Trends: K-beauty Pop Up Shop, Best Korean Beauty Hair Products, and Are you sleeping on Sulwhasoo? appeared first on koglow.

[Review] Relaxing Guasha Facial for better skin

by Zoe @ Mypeaceofheaven

Hi ladies, I’m sure you have heard of Guasha. It is a traditional Chinese medical treatment said to improve blood circulation and to help with chronic pain, and is usually done on the back. But have you heard of Guasha facial? :) Honestly, I haven’t heard of it until I found out that The Best ... [Read more...]

The post [Review] Relaxing Guasha Facial for better skin appeared first on Mypeaceofheaven.

Shop the Best Korean Skin Care Products

by Giselle @ koglow

Shop the best Korean skin care products right here! Every time I review a product, you can visit this page to purchase them directly from Amazon. You can view the full store through Amazon here. Note: koglow.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for […]

The post Shop the Best Korean Skin Care Products appeared first on koglow.

Brighten and Firm Your Face with the Bonvivant Chrome Mask

by Giselle @ koglow

First of all, this was my first time trying a Korean peel off mask like the Bonvivant Chrome Mask. It moisturized and firmed pretty well. Most of all, it smelled really good. I never used a silicone spatula to apply a peel off mask before, either. Now I think using a spatula is the best […]

The post Brighten and Firm Your Face with the Bonvivant Chrome Mask appeared first on koglow.

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ reviews, photos, ingredients

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ reviews, photos, ingredients


MakeupAlley

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++: rated 4.2 out of 5 on MakeupAlley. See 192 member reviews, ingredients and photos.

Best Pick: Biore UV Perfect Sunscreen Line (2015 formula)

Best Pick: Biore UV Perfect Sunscreen Line (2015 formula)


RatzillaCosme

Biore seem to be one of the few brands that I can rely on year after year to have truly lightweight sunscreens that I can use all year round. For winter and general everyday wear (i.e. you’re…

8 Reasons to reach out to 'the public'

by @ LongeCity - Articles

While the idea that drastic life extension may be an option for humankind in the future has been encountered by many through the media and fiction, the vast majority of the public do not grasp whether and how this could realistically apply to them or their loved ones. 
 
Some argue that since life is an universally desirable good and age-related suffering and death universally feared and avoided, ‘public perception’ is something that will take care of itself. If anything, the inherent attractiveness of the concept will always guarantee media interest perhaps even to the point of generating unwarranted hype and the empty promises that have been the bane of the scientific life extension movement for centuries. 
 
Others argue, with great conviction, that public perception and ‘marketing a life extension movement’ should be a prime objective. Here is a list of eight reasons why:  
 
1. Broaden the pool of ideas. Generally, the more minds are altered to and focused towards a common objective, the greater the chance than innovative or groundbreaking ideas will be generated. If Life Extension is a more broadly known, accepted and prestigious topic of interest, more bright minds will be attracted to it.  
 
2. Increase public sector funding and donations. As businesses tend to fund research only when profitability is close it often falls to the public sector and philanthropists to fund the "starter end" of research that will eventually lead to usable products which business will then want to take up. 
 
3. Reduce opposition.  There is an element of ‘shock’ associated with the concept that aging and death may not be inevitable which can lead to denial or impatient dismissal. Visceral or ideological opposition to life extension translates into less government funding, less scientific interest, less favorable laws and less industry support especially if there is no widely established counter-position.   
 
4. Improve regulation.  Whether we are thinking about laws allowing or prohibiting life extension treatments in general, or the speed and efficiency at which the FDA similar entities conduct their reviews, the support of government agencies is important at every stage of the process of getting treatments to the public. Responsive regulation can be generated through public pressure and media attention. 
 
5. Focus corporate interests towards effective treatments.  Only if there is a clear and well-informed demand for proven and validated treatments will effective products become more profitable to the industry than ineffective ‘snake oil’.
 
6. Build economies of scale.  Given the urgent need for life extension treatments for many people there is an interest in helping to bring costs down as soon as possible. If pent-up public demand becomes more clearly visible, consideration of scale-up will become a part of more business plans and healthcare reforms. 
 
7. Improve public health.  A focus on life extension often comes with increased health consciousness. Prevention is better and cheaper than cures and if more people participate in a wider programme of health-conscious living, this is likely to bring overall healthcare costs down.
 
8. Reduce social unrest and disruption.  Even once society accepts the concept of life extension and associated treatments there will still be people who are unwilling or unable to participate. Moreover, extended lifespans will affect society profoundly. Careful public engagement ensures that social unrest and discrimination can be minimised.  
 
If at least one of these reasons makes sense to you, then you may want to think about how you could help ‘connect’ the LongeCity’s mission with others. Generally, the ‘self-multiplying’ effect of outreach should not be underestimated. People act as role models and influencers of their peers. Beyond all media spin, if a person acts and speaks with conviction, others will take note; and if people realize that their friends and family members could live longer they will be more willing to engage in the idea themselves.  
 
 
-- 
This article is based on an original drafted by Sanhar in response to a LongeCity tender.

An update of the possibly best sunscreens currently available - Ageless Looks

An update of the possibly best sunscreens currently available - Ageless Looks


LONGECITY

An update of the possibly best sunscreens currently available - posted in Ageless Looks: Hello everyone. So lets take a look at the first.http://www.amazon.co...n/dp/B007RVENMQJust as it says, a rating of PA +++ so great UVA protection..... Heres the thing. I ALWAYS thought that UVA protection ratings only went as high as PA +++....BUT I found a Korean sunscreen which boasts a PA ++++ rating!!! I had no idea this was possible. Here it is!!!http://www.amazon.co...VK7GYS2WWWN5KAX AND a...

Sunscreen Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence

Sunscreen Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence


Kitsune Beauty

are expensive sunscreens the only way ?Before I discovered the realm of Asian Beauty, I believed that all sunscreens were created equal.  I was never quite sure of the specifics, but I knew I was not a fan. After trying several different mainstream drugstore brands I was always left less t

Battle of the Aloe Vera Gels: Which under P400 AVG is the best buy?

Battle of the Aloe Vera Gels: Which under P400 AVG is the best buy?

by Claire Reyes @ Articles - Project Vanity

We had potted aloe vera plants on our window sill while I was growing up. Aside from providing succulent décor, we would often use the plant itself for various skin, hair, and medicinal purposes. It was our family’s equivalent to Windex in My Big Fat Greek Wedding, and hummus in You Don’t Mess with the Zohan. For us, it was the solution to burns, scratches, pimples, scars, thinning hair, and more! We would simply pluck a leaf from the plant, squeeze it on the affected area, and let it do the job. It seems that scientists have been showing interest in this miracle plant, as well. Recent studies* have shown that aloe vera and cape aloe extracts have skin-healing and barrier-strengthening properties.

Sunscreen for Acne: How I Stopped Breakouts! – Dr. Jart Ctrl-A Sun Protector – Review- koglow.com

by Giselle @ koglow

Sunscreen for Acne: No More Breakouts! – Dr. Jart Ctrl-A Sensitive Sun Protector Sunscreen When you have sensitive, acne-prone skin, finding sunscreen for acne is often overlooked. After all, the worst thing that can happen when you have acne prone skin is that the very products you’re using to protect your skin (like sunscreen) actually make […]

The post Sunscreen for Acne: How I Stopped Breakouts! – Dr. Jart Ctrl-A Sun Protector – Review- koglow.com appeared first on koglow.

Best Daily Sunscreens: Bioré UV + La Roche-Posay | byMinoue

Best Daily Sunscreens: Bioré UV + La Roche-Posay | byMinoue


bijou magazine

It was long overdue, but I've finally started wearing sunscreen on a daily basis. It's not that I didn't know not protecting my skin could cause sunburn and speed up the aging process; I just hadn't taken the time to find THE sunscreen out there that didn't go on thick and white—especially when layering it over serum and moisturizer, and under makeup. This year, I starting taking things more seriously, and tried a number of formulas from different brands. Here are the two that came out on top. There are others I also reach for regularly, but these two really are my favourites from the bunch! Bioré UV AQUA Rich Watery Essence SPF 50+ 🇯🇵 (ビオレ UV アクアリッチ ウォータリーエッセンス SPF50+) I decided to purchase this after reading many good things about it online. I had also not tried a Japanese sunscreen in recent history, so I was extra curious. This one has a light gel texture that you can barely feel on your skin, which fits in perfectly within my skincare and makeup routine. A little goes a lon

Best Spray Tan Hacks

by Vicki @ Tampa Bay Tan

Some of my favorite tips, from other Professional Technicians, I have picked up over the years. While Spraying: Ask client to polish finger AND toe nails (they can use clear if […]

The post Best Spray Tan Hacks appeared first on Tampa Bay Tan.

The Best Place to Park at LAX

by nylonpink @ Nylon Pink Official Website

This is a sponsored post written by me on behalf of Park ‘N Fly Airport Parking. All opinions are 100% […]

The post The Best Place to Park at LAX appeared first on Nylon Pink Official Website.

My Favourite Japanese Sunscreens - Beautyholics Anonymous

My Favourite Japanese Sunscreens - Beautyholics Anonymous


Beautyholics Anonymous

© narstudio What’s the most important item in your skincare routine? Eye cream? Serum? Moisturiser? For me, it isn’t any of these. It’s sunscreen. I didn’t start wearing sunscreen regularly until I was in my early twenties. I know I should have started a lot earlier but when the only sunscreens I could get were …

Ellana Cosmetics just released new lippies, and they're 50% off (srsly)

Ellana Cosmetics just released new lippies, and they're 50% off (srsly)

by Crystal Rodis-Concepcion @ Articles - Project Vanity

We've raved about the Ellana Cosmetics foundations so many times before and even now, their crazy good powders still have a place in our vanities. But did you know that they also have killer liquid lipsticks? Ellana Mineral Cosmetics Lip in Luxe Matte Liquid Lipsticks have one of the best wear-it-and-forget-it formulas we've ever tried. Once set, they're completely smudge-proof and transfer-proof. In fact, we tested them on a swimming trip and they passed with flying colors! What's even more exciting is that Ellana has just released five new shades, bringing your color options to eight in total.