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Biore Sunscreen Australia

Robert_Colvile_LongeCity_Now2016.mp3

by @ Last 10 Submissions RSS Feed

In this LongeCity Now podcast we hear from author Robert Colvile his views on "the great acceleration" of technological progress.

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SUNSCREEN Pt 2: Stability and Safety of Sunscreen Ingredients, both FDA Approved and Non-Approved

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SUNSCREEN Pt 2: Stability and Safety of Sunscreen Ingredients, both FDA Approved and Non-Approved


Vanity Rex

This is a continuation of the Sunscreen 101 Series. In Pt 1: UVA rays vs UVB rays + the role of Antioxidants In Pt 2 (this post): Why you should trust the FDA when they deem an ingredient safe Over…

Hi all, Rebirth here.

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Hi all,

  I have joined this forum because of my interest n C60, and the quite long thread I have found about it.  For me it is a treasure trove of information.  I am 68 years old, in quite good health, and am very excited about what just might be possible with C60.  I have a 100 Kg rat that has been taking C60 in coconut oil for about 2 weeks.  Phenomenal results.

 

  I look forward to many informative exchanges her.

 

Rebirth

Sunscreens Smackdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Mousse VS Watery Essence - Beauty for Brekkie

Sunscreens Smackdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Mousse VS Watery Essence - Beauty for Brekkie


Beauty for Brekkie

Hate thick sunscreens? I compare the bestselling Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence against the new Mousse version.

How To Get Shiny Glossy Hair At Home

by Rima @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hello, friends, I’m back with another post today! We would be talking about how to get shiny glossy hair at home. Getting soft and shiny hair is a dream every woman harbours and most women try a lot of things to get luxurious and glossy hair. With a large variety of treatments and solutions available […]

The post How To Get Shiny Glossy Hair At Home appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

Video: All Your Sunscreen and Make-up Questions Answered

by Michelle @ Lab Muffin Beauty Science

Or at least I hope all your sunscreen and make-up questions are answered! This video took me a bloody long time to research and put together, so I’m hoping I won’t have to revisit this topic again anytime soon. The questions I talk about: Do I need to wear sunscreen every day, even though I’ll...

Read More »

The post Video: All Your Sunscreen and Make-up Questions Answered appeared first on Lab Muffin Beauty Science.

YOLF's Blog - Got dentures? Here's a tip to keep you healthy.

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

We've all been told at some point to chew our food, and there's a good reason for it. Chewing produces enzymes and host of other important things that we swallow to great benefit and there are reports of people on liquid only diets who suffered diseases of deficiency in these things. Personally, I like the convenience of powdered foods, esp. fruits. They don't go bad or grow moldy and scooping them into your mouth yields this nice chewy mixture you normally wouldn't get. Not to mention it leaves a residue to some extent where more of the enzymes and the like can be created. So if you've got dentures and no teeth to ruin, perhaps it's worth a try. It stands to reason that generating more enzymes this way could be better than taking enzymes in pill form. The flip side if you have teeth however is the possibility of cavities. Perhaps mixing a little bit of taurine into your food powders will solve that. Particularly taurine and banana as it's got the right mixture of minerals to rebuild your teeth. I've seen big improvements in dental health simply by taking 1g of taurine daily and despite what your dentist says, it does work. Not to the obscure metrics that dentists use, but that's a complicated explanation that I'll spare you that comes down to the types of studies that have been done showing that it works and the transition in modern science to much more accurate theoretical understandings of mechanisms by virtue of having more science. It's about how much you read, not whether a physician's association has published a paper on it or whether it has acceptance from the FDA. It may look like nothing's changed, but we're doing alot more science these days and scientists have much more to work with if they have enough background knowledge to apply it. But I'll stop there, it's getting harder to talk about it without hurting anyone's feelings.

How do you refresh your sunscreen during day

by ray_jay @ beautyheaven - Suncare

So im a avid sunscreen wearer daily but I also wear makeup daily.

As sunscreen mainly has a wear life of four hours. . how does everyone refresh their sunscreen during the day without redoing makeup ..

I go out in sun for lunch and afternoon but worry im not protected.

I've started using the color science physical protect powder. I do a dusting over makeup and it gives protection and different colours. PTR also has one spf 40.

Tips/ tricks? Ideas

588

List of Sunscreens That Will Prevent Sunscreen Stains on Clothes

by Lauren Hill @ Mama's Laundry Talk

As we head into summertime, many of us are diligently applying sunscreen to prevent sunburn. I have very fair skin, so I am definitely a faithful sunscreen user! Did you know that sunscreens that contain the ingredient avobenzone can produce stains on your clothes? If you’ve ever applied sunscreen to your head, face, neck, or […]

The post List of Sunscreens That Will Prevent Sunscreen Stains on Clothes appeared first on Mama's Laundry Talk.

LongeCity science support: quick guide/FAQ

by @ Articles

What is LongeCity?
LongeCity is a registered, members-based non-profit organisation.
More info here.


What THEMES of science projects does LongeCity support?
We support research into ageing and the extension of human lifespan. This means we support many types of medical research and research into basic biology, but there should be an angle that will allow people to live longer, healthier lives.


What TYPES of science projects does LongeCity support?
We support laboratory research, clinical research, bioinformatics and theoretical research in the ‘hard sciences’. We do not normally support social science research.
We do support some events, mentorship and travel to scientific conferences, but not under the ‘research budget’.


Where can the research take place?
Anywhere in the world. Laboratory research should normally be conducted in an established lab.


What does LongeCity expect in return?
Scientific integrity. Normally a written report. Interim updates for longer projects. Acknowledgement of the funding received. We may approach previous grantholders to be available as peer reviewers for future research applications.


What grant schemes are available?

a) Small Grants
Funding: up to $500
Who can apply: any LongeCity Member, it helps if you have a sponsor/supervisor with some track record
Type: typical cases are support for summer projects, internships, workshops, review paper writing, selected consumables
Next deadline: none, applications are welcome until the annual budget is exhausted
Details: http://www.longecity...s/action/grants

b) Matching Fundraiser
Funding: up to $20.000 (in total- matching fundraiser)
Who can apply: Scientists
Type: For selected projects, LongeCity will issue a call for donations and for every dollar received LongeCity will match (or better) the donation. The entire money goes to support the research project.
Next deadline: July 1st 2013
Details: http://www.longecity...ts/research2013


Questions?
Contact us.

Kryolan Contour Pencil 902 Review

by Esha Pandit @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hi everyone, This time, I am back with the product from my favorite company, Kryolan. I was always a little skeptical about sporting orange/terracotta shades on my lips. But, this pencil from Kryolan has become “the orange” I was looking for and now I sport it every now and then. Read the review to know […]

The post Kryolan Contour Pencil 902 Review appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

How to Lose Water Weight the Right Way

by Rachael Link @ Dr. Axe

By Rachael Link, MS, RD Water is crucial to health and accounts for a pretty big chunk of your body composition. In fact, the human body is made up of between 55 percent to 75 percent water. (1) Still, water retention is a common problem and can cause issues like swelling, aches and weight gain,... Read more »

Supplement Use and Analytics Made Simple (and Free)

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Hi - I made this analytics engine and posted it here about two months back. The reaction was lukewarm, so I took it as I should refine it better. I took all the feedback I got from online communities and added a bunch of new features during that time. I'd love to show it off again! If you already saw it before, here's what new since then
 
- rolling correlated aggregations. IE. Want to see how a week of taking piracetam compares with a week without taking piracetam? Now you can!
- automatic sleep correlations
- fitbit integration
- better exporting of all your data (I made a promise to not hold any data hostage)
- an electronic calendar that lets you select any day and see what supplements you took during that day. So imagine three months from now, you want to know what you took on 9/22? Now you can with exact timestamps.
 
https://imgur.com/a/jXyhJ - An imgur album showing you the features
 
the link is @ https://betterself.io
 
Would love any feedback again.
 
Thanks!
Jeff

List of Sunscreens That Will Prevent Sunscreen Stains on Clothes - Mama's Laundry Talk

List of Sunscreens That Will Prevent Sunscreen Stains on Clothes - Mama's Laundry Talk


Mama's Laundry Talk

The sunscreens on the list will prevent sunscreen stains on clothes!

Solar Eclipse 2017: How to Safely View It

by Kissairis Munoz @ Dr. Axe

There’s something special about witnessing an infrequent natural phenomenon and here, in the U.S., we have an exciting one: a total solar eclipse! Solar Eclipse 2017 Details On Monday, August 21, 2017, the continental U.S. will be directly in the path of a total solar eclipse, the first that’s been visible in the upper 48... Read more »

Top 10 Best Refrigerator Water Filters – Keep Your Water Clean Painstakingly

by Nimol Or @ BuyTheTOP10

While there are many filters from the carafe to the countertops, under the sink, and faucet water filters, we’re only going to look at...

The post Top 10 Best Refrigerator Water Filters – Keep Your Water Clean Painstakingly appeared first on BuyTheTOP10.

"Stacks" Comments Screwy

by @ Action

When I click at the bottom of my Stack page to see the comments on the next page, it just sends me back to the main Forums page.

 

Also, I couldn't figure out why I wasn't getting emails alerting me to comments on the 3 Stacks I follow. I now see that you have to set this as a separate preference, apart from doing the same thing for new posts in Forum threads. I suggest that these should be consolidated, so that you automatically get the same treatment for both.

Grow Your Own Loofah Sponge (Yes, You Really Can!)

by Leah Zerbe @ Dr. Axe

A loofah sponge probably conjures up images of rough, exfoliating fibers for bath time, but there’s really so much more to this vegetable. (That’s right, it’s a veggie.) “Loofah,” also known as loofa, luffa or sponge gourd, is something most folks buy in the beauty aisle, but you can actually grow it at home. A loofah sponge... Read more »

Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Jelly

Review: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Jelly


A Curiosity

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Jelly

Chemical Sunscreen without Avobenzone - Ageless Looks

Chemical Sunscreen without Avobenzone - Ageless Looks


LONGECITY

Chemical Sunscreen without Avobenzone - posted in Ageless Looks: Many of us are looking for so-called holy grail sunscreen with broad spectrum of UV protection on one hand and cosmetically elegant on the other. I have been using the Face and Body Sunscreen of Burnout for a while and am happy with it, except one thing that I hope Burnout can improve is to make water resistant or sweat resistant. However, when I do outdoor activities and stay outdoor for more than 4 hours, I wo...

Too Faced Chocolate Bar Eyeshadow Palette

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

This is a review of the Too Faced Chocolate Bar eyeshadows I got about a year ago and never used – mostly due to my worrying dependence on the Naked2 palette. I love Naked2 so much I have a spare set even though I’ve only hit pan on two shades in the current palette… Anyways. I don’t […]

The post Too Faced Chocolate Bar Eyeshadow Palette appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

United to find the PHX (Fix)

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

None of us is as smart as all of us. ― Kenneth H. Blanchard

 

I have had my share of pain in life. I've been unable to walk twice in my life and have come back. I believe that the only research subject that wants answers as much as you, is you.

After testing and finding that I have shorter telomere lengths, I decided not to let my army inside die a premature death. Research and my personal testing results have proven it is possible for my internal warriors to live longer. Now it is time to move this work to the next level. C60 is the next focus of discovery that I'm funding and will begin experimenting with.

 

For all that have gone before me I salute your efforts. For those that have yet to discover longevity "in health", may our efforts enlighten the social consciousness.

 

phx

 

Your health equals the investment you make in it.

Top sun protection products for travellers

Top sun protection products for travellers


2 Aussie Travellers

Sun protection is important not only in summer but all year round. These are my top 7 skin savers and it's not only sunscreen!

Advertisers sought

by @ LongeCity - Articles

For over a decade LongeCity has presented a bustling platform for discussion and information exchange on advanced life extension. As a non-profit org we have consistently promoted grassroots science and advocacy projects by the international life extension community. Funding for these initiatives is raised in large part through donations, but also to some degree from advertisers. 
Those choosing to advertise at LongeCity gain unique access and exposure to a dynamic, growing and committed community of life extension enthusiasts, and the goodwill of well-educated thought leaders in life extension science and advocacy. It is also a great way of 'giving back' something to the bigger cause of healthy life extension that many of our advertiser support.

There are different ways of placing an advertisement at LongeCity: 

Automated:we are now using a new automated platform. This is how it should work: 
Anywhere on our page where you see an advert and text similar to "support LongeCity by booking this space for YOUR ad"  - you can click on the text and it should take you to an order page for that slot. If the space in question is currently taken up by another ad, you can book it from the time it becomes free. If it is currently served by an ad from google, the space is normally free. You can upload your ad straight from there. Payment can be made via paypal.
CLICK HERE to see a list of all 'bookable'slots.


Sponsored thread: Normally, discussing an advertiser's product range is not allowed on the open forums. Sponsored threads however are the exemption. Click here to learn more.  

Non-automated: the following spaces may also be available for ads, but not via the automated route. 
If you want to go for one of the following, use the contact page supplying as much info as possible.

Ø1- Rolling ad in the carousel on left-hand of forum -- this feature is not always in use, the equivalent would be another 'carousel' place where topical items are displayed at a common location. (~$180/month)
Ø2- Text ad on left-hand of forum  -- A short piece of text/link that is visible prominently from any place anywhere on the page (~$280/month)
Ø3- Individual subforum -- For a much boarder variant of 'individual thread'  (~$400/year)
Ø4- Featured article -- An article on the portal. To be effective and useful, his should be more than a simple advert and also contain some useful information about a topic relevant to LongeCity (~$300). 
Ø5- Associate link -- A 'featured' entry in our database of interesting links (~$50)
Ø6- Discount for members -- A free form of advertising that generates significant exposure. Member discount codes can be shared at the restricted members forum or more sophisticated discount schemes can be devised (usually free
Ø7- Sponsored item in 'thank you 'store' -- LongeCity has a unique system of rewarding volunteers with 'Thank You' points. These points can be exchanged for small gifts: a book voucher, a DVD... or perhaps a product from a valued sponsor (usually free). 
Ø8- Mention in newsletter -- The LongeCity newsletter is sent monthly to over 12.000 users with a live email address. Some of the above options may entail a free mention in the newsletter (~$280/month). 


NB: There are a few things that advertising money cannot buy at LongeCity (please don't ask). Among these are 'privileged' status that exempts you from the forum user agreement (including the prohibition against 'viral' marketing), any right in how the site is run (you can become a Member and vote in referenda instead) and any content that appears as if it was coming from LongeCity without making it clear that such content was 'sponsored by'. 
For the broader advertising framework at LongeCity please read this article.

Nootropics in human trials (Intro)

by @ Articles

The word "nootropic" derives from the Greek words nous, or "mind", and trepein meaning "to bend or turn". It was first coined by Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea after synthesizing Piracetam.
For Giurgea a nootropic drug should have the following characteristics:
1. They should enhance learning and memory.
2. They should enhance the resistance of learned behaviors/memories to conditions which tend to disrupt them (e.g. electroconvulsive shock, hypoxia).
3. They should protect the brain against various physical or chemical injuries (e.g. barbiturates, scopalamine).
4. They should increase the efficacy of the tonic cortical/subcortical control mechanisms.
5. They should lack the usual pharmacology of other psychotropic drugs (e.g. sedation, motor stimulation) and possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

In fact, most drugs commonly labelled as nootropics do not fulfill all of these requirements. Some of the best known (e.g. Adderall, Modafinil) seem to not fulfill any, as discussed later. Instead, other characteristics like (reputed increased alertness, focus or motivation) seem to be key to their popularity.
Because of deviating definitions nootropics are more broadly defined (e.g. in wikipedia) as drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. 

Some nootropics from the very common to the :

Caffeine
Caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant (Nawrot, et al., 2003). It is used by over 90 % of North Americans every day (Mednick et al., 2008). It is widely used because of its positive effects on mood and alertness (Lorist & Tops, 2003)and vigilance and attention (Lieberman et al., 1987). However, these effects do not seem applicable / transferable to motor learning and verbal memory and are unable to reverse effects of sleep deprivation, with a dose of 200mg in low to moderate users (< than 2 cups a day) (Mednick et al., 2008). It is also shown to be ineffective in higher cognitive tasks involving working memory (Battig et al., 1984). Overall conclusions regarding the relation of caffeine and memory have been mixed. Positive effects might stem from caffeine withdrawal in high dosage users (Mednick et al., 2008).

Nicotine
With about 1,1 billion smokers worldwide in the year 2015 (WHO 2015) nicotine takes second place as the most widely used stimulant. It was shown that the application of nicotine in non-smoking males enhances performance in continuous performance tasks and therefore is said to improve attention and working-memory (Kumari, et al., 2003), which is in line with other studies suggesting that nicotine affects short-term memory in delayed free recall tasks (Sarah & Fox, 1998)
Another study examined nicotine’s effects on alertness and performance on a covert orienting task were measured. While nicotine decreased overall reaction times in the covert orienting task, there was no change in the validity effect, the reaction time difference between validly and invalidly cued targets. However, nicotine significantly improved both EEG and self-rated measures of alertness. Nicotine seems to increases alertness in non-smokers, with no improvement in spatial attention using a covert orienting task (Griesar et al., 2002). Furthermore Nicotine seems to reduce distraction under low perceptual load by acting as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness (Behler et al., 2015).

Methylphenidate/ Ritalin
Most college students I know will immediately think of Ritalin or Modafinil if they are asked to name a cognitive enhancer. Studies have found that 4.1% to 10.8% of college students in the US reported using prescription stimulants non-medically during the past year (Garnier-Dykstra, et al., 2012).
Methylphenidate (MPH - common brand name ‘Ritalin’) is used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Most studies focused on the its effects on Attention, Mood, Memory and executive functions. A single dose of MPH showed a positive effect on memory. Repeated doses of MPH had a mood elevating effect but also enhanced anxiety. No statistically significant effect was found in the outcomes attention, mood and executive functions. MPH had no significant effect on sleep-deprived individuals (Repantis et al., 2010). In a 2015 review the authors found some ‘publication bias’, relating to long-term and working memory and conclude that the effect in healthy subject is probably modest overall and that healthy users resort to stimulants to enhance their energy and motivation more than their cognition (Ilieva et al., 2015). 

Modafinil
Modafinil is used in treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Most studies focused on its effects on attention, mood, memory, wakefulness and executive functions and motivation. A single dose showed positive effects on attention only. On sleep deprived individuals it was shown to have an impact on executive functions, on memory and wakefulness but there was an insignificant effect on mood and attention (Repantis et al., 2010). A 2012 meta-analysis found that Modafinil was likely effective but criticised the gaps in the literature. (Kelley et al., 2012) 
A recent study on chess players found significantly enhanced performance with Modafinil or Ritalin but only when the players were not under time pressure (Franke et al. 2017). 

Adderall
Mixed Amphetamine Salts also known under the brand Name Adderall became increasingly popular in recent years as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer. Like Ritalin, it is also used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.
Overall effects of Adderall on cognition have been reviewed as very modest, while having a huge effect on perception. It was found to enhance performance in word recall, embedded figures and Raven's Progressive Matrices, but only for lower performing individuals (Ilieva et al., 2013). Adderall might also impair creativity in high performing individuals (Farah et al., 2009).

L-theanine & Caffeine
L- theanine is primarily found in plants (e.g. in the leaves of green and black tea) and fungus. Results evidently demonstrated that L-theanine clearly has a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in normal healthy subjects susceptible to having high anxiety (Higashiyama et al., 2011).
A dose of L-theanine equivalent to eight cups of black tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. The combination of Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses (Kahathuduwa et al.,2016).
Studies suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task (Giesbrecht 2010).

Bacopa Monnieri
Bacopa Monnieri is an herb which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. Bacopa's primary mechanism of action is still unclear, it seems to be an anti-oxidant, a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a cerebral blood flow activator (Aguiar & Borowski , 2013).
There is some evidence to suggest that Bacopa Monnieri improves memory with little evidence of enhancement in any other cognitive domains (Pase et al., 2012).

Piracetam
Closing the circle to the beginning of this short introduction to the topic: Giurgea first coined the term "nootropic" when he synthesized Piracetam in 1964. Since it is not approved by the US FDA, it is primarily used in Europe, Asia, and South America. It is commonly prescribed for cognitive impairment and dementia in several countries of Europe. Research suggests that Piracetam might also have a positive effect on healthy individuals. Subjects were given 3×4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased (Dimond & Brouwers, 1976). It might also be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with age. Aging subjects did significantly better in a computerized perceptual-motor tasks when on piracetam than on a placebo. (Mindus et al. 1976). While these old studies may not be that reliable, it is still held that Piracetam's “efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia. While high doses are sometimes necessary, piracetam is well tolerated” (Winblad, 2005). Since Piracetam was first synthesized many structurally similar compounds have emerged. These so called Racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems (Gualtieri et al., 2002).


This article is solely for information purposes, not a substitute for professional medical or dietary advice. 
The provisos of the LongeCity user agreement apply.

write for LongeCity



References
* Aguiar, S., & Borowski , T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research, 313-326. 
* Battig , K., Martin, J. R., & Feierabend , J. M. (1984). The effects of caffeine on physiological functions and mental performance. Experentia, 1218–1223.
* Behler , O., Breckel, T. P., & Thiel , C. M. (2015). Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load. Psychopharmacology, 1269-1277.
* Dimond, S. J., & Brouwers, E. M. (1976). Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology, 307-309.
* Farah , M., Haimm , C., Sankoorikal , G., Smith , M., & Chatterjee , A. (2009). When we enhance cognition with Adderall, do we sacrifice creativity? A preliminary study. Psychopharmacology,541-547.
* Franke, A.G.; Gränsmark, P., Agricola, A., Schühle, K., Rommel, T., Sebastian, A., Balló, H.E., Gorbulev, S., Gerdes, C., Frank, B., Ruckes, C., Tüscher, O., Lieb, K. (2017) "Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial" in: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol27, Issue 3, 1, pp248-260
* Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Arria, A. M. (2012).Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: Four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources. J Am Coll Health, 226-234.
* Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft , J. A., Rowson , M. J., & De Bruin , E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 283-290.
* Griesar , W. S., Zajdel , D. P., & Oken , B. (2002). Nicotine effects on alertness and spatial attention in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 185-194.
* Gualtieri , F., Manetti , D., Romanelli , M. N., & Ghelardini , C. (2002). Design and study of piracetamlike nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 125-138.
* Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 171-178.
* Ilieva, I., Boland, J., & Farah, M. (2013). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology, 496-505.
* Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. (2015) Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis.; J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Jun;27(6):1069-89. 
* Kahathuduwa, C. N., Dassanayake , T. L., Amarakoon , A. M., & Weerasinghe, V. S. (2016). Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutritional Neuroscience.
* Kelley, A.M.; Webb, C.M., Athy, J.R., Ley, S., Gaydos, S. (2012) "Cognition enhancement by modafinil: A meta-analysis" in Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine; Vol83, Issue 7, p685-690
* Kumari, V., Gray, J., H ffytche, D., Mitterschiffthaler, M., Das, M., Zachariah, E., . . . Sharma, T. (2003). Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 1002-1013.
* Lieberman , H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts , C., & Coviella, I. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 308-312.
* Lorist , M. M., & Tops, M. (2003). Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain Cognition, 82-94.
* Mednick, S. C., Cai, D. J., Kanady, J., & Drummond, S. P. (2008). Comparing the benefits of Caffeine,Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 79–86.
* Mindus , P., Cronholm , B., Levander , S. E., & Schalling , D. (1976). Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 150-160.
* Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood , J., Rotstein , J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 1-30.
* Pase, M. P., Kean , J., Sarris , J., Neale , C., Scholey , A. B., & Stough , C. (2012). The cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 647-652.
* Repantis , D., Schlattmann , P., Laisney , O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review. Pharmacological Research, 187-206.
* Sarah , P., & Fox, P. (1998). An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.Psychopharmacology, 429-433.
* WHO (2015). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data .
* Winblad, B. (2005). Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses. CNS Drug reviews, 169-182.

Why you shouldn’t get the StylPro Makeup Brush Cleaner

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

This is a review of the StylPro Makeup Brush Cleaner **UPDATED 02022017** As of today, my video test-driving the StylPro Makeup Brush Cleaner has reached over 100K views, lol. Inventor Tom has also reached out late last year offering a replacement unit, and I was about to send out my mailing details when I realized I’ve […]

The post Why you shouldn’t get the StylPro Makeup Brush Cleaner appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Top 13 Foods that Lower Blood Pressure

by Rebekah Edwards @ Dr. Axe

Regardless of location or income level, the leading cause of death worldwide is heart disease. (1) One of the most common conditions leading to heart disease and stroke (the No. 2 killer) is the all-too familiar issue of high blood pressure. A shocking one in three individuals in the United States has high blood pressure. (2) The... Read more »

Special Occasion Makeup & Hair Tutorial

by Karima McKimmie @ Shameless Fripperies

A rose-toned makeup look that’s perfect for wedding guests, prom or any special occasions you have coming up :) Dewy skin, mauve lips and a flirty wing liner! Hope you enjoy and let’s chat in the comments ;) FYI: Yes, this tutorial was originally filmed as a recreation. I can’t discuss it though, cryptic I […]

The post Special Occasion Makeup & Hair Tutorial appeared first on Shameless Fripperies.

Indian Festive Orange Makeup Look – Durga Puja / Navratri

by Rati @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hi Everyone, 🙂 Here’s my new Indian festive makeup look today. You can do it for the upcoming Durga Puja season/ Navratri/ Diwali/ Dussera..whatever. It’s perfect for the upcoming wedding season too. 🙂 Continuing my theme of coloured lower lash line I did a few days ago, I wanted to match my lower lashline color […]

The post Indian Festive Orange Makeup Look – Durga Puja / Navratri appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

The Opioid Epidemic: the No. 1 Cause of Death for Americans Under Age 50

by Jillian Babcock @ Dr. Axe

Opiate addiction has been called “America’s fastest-growing drug problem.” It’s now believed that the prescription opioid epidemic the leading cause of death among adults under 50 years old living in the U.S. In fact, the opioid epidemic is now responsible for more deaths of despair every year in the U.S than HIV was at the... Read more »

Cryonics

by @ Articles - Articles

The following is a quick overview on Cryonics.

 

NB: The information below is periodically reviewed for accuracy, but LongeCity makes no representations or gives any warranties whatsoever that the following information is accurate and complete at any point in time. LongeCity accepts no responsibility or liability for information contained on this page. The discussion of cryonics service providers and services in no way entails any endorsement on part of LongeCity. The lead author of this page, its editors and other contributors from time to time may be affiliated with one of the service providers mentioned below. Without qualification to the foregoing disclaimers, LongeCity strives to present the following information in an objective and balanced manner. If you feel that information on this page is inaccurate or imbalanced please contact the LongeCity Support Email.

 

INDEX

Cryonics Overview

 

Cryonics is based on the idea that future medicine will have capabilities well beyond those of current medicine, including the ability to cure all diseases, rejuvenate and repair damage incurred in the cryopreservation process — through the use of nanotechnology and other technologies. Cryonics can be an ambulance or time capsule to future medicine which can allow us to live many thousands of years or longer in youth and good health. Stored at very low temperatures there will be very little molecular motion in cryonics patients for tens of thousands of years, although most of us do not believe that we will have to wait anywhere near so long for future medicine.

 

Although cryonics patients must be legally dead before cryonics procedures to reduce or eliminate ischemic damage and ice formation can be applied, cryonicists do not believe that cryonics patients are dead in an ultimate sense. Nearly all the cells of the body are alive for quite some time after the heart stops — including neurons. A standby team can be used to minimize the time between pronouncement of death and cooling, cardiopulmonary support, etc. Cryonicists believe that the anatomical basis of mind can survive much longer than six minutes after stoppage of the heart in the absence of cooling — despite the inability of current medicine to revive patients without neurological damage after more than six minutes of cardiac arrest. (See Quantifying Ischemic Damage for Cryonics Rescue for more details.)

 

Existing Cryonics Organizations

 

For most of cryonics history (which began in the mid-1960s), all of the cryonics organizations offering cryonics services have been in the United States. In 2005 a cryonics organization was created in Russia (just northwest of Moscow) and there are plans for another cryonics organization in Australia to offer perfusion and storage of cryonics patients within a few years. LongeCity does not endorse any particular cryonics organization. The data below is taken from the cryonics organizations without LongeCity attempting to verify the accuracy of their claims or the extent of the services they claim to provide. If you are considering utilizing any of these organizations, you should conduct your own investigation.

 

NAMELOCATIONINCORPORATEDNON-PROFIT ?
Alcor Life Extension FoundationScottsdale, Arizona1972Yes
American Cryonics Society (ACS)Cupertino, California1969Yes
Cryonics Institute (CI) Clinton Township, Michigan1976Yes
KrioRus Moscow, Russia2005No
Oregon Cryonics Salem, Oregon2005*No
Suspended Animation, Inc (SA) Boynton Beach, Florida2002No
Trans Time, Inc.San Leandro, California1972No

 

Alcor Life Extension Foundation and the American Cryonics Society (ACS) are organized as 501©3 charitable organizations, whereas the Cryonics Institute (CI) is simply a non-profit corporation. Although Suspended Animation, Inc. (SA) is ostensibly a for-profit company, it is mainly engaged in research and development of cryonics capabilities financed by the principals of the Life Extension Foundation. By 2012 KrioRus had relocated to a facility closer to Moscow, but a newer facility is being built midway between Moscow and St. Petersburg.

 

Oregon Cryonics was incorporated in 2005, but accepted its first patient (a pet patient) in May, 2014. Jordan Sparks is the owner/operator, but he has plans for a Board of Directors or other mechanism to out-live him (to allow for the organization to continue).

 

Cryonics Services Offered

 

Not all cryonics services are offered by all cryonics organizations. Patient administration service is offered by cryonics organizations that sign-up Members who are to be cryopreserved upon legal death and maintain responsibility for those Members while they are Patient's in cryopreservation storage. Perfusion is the replacement of normal body fluid with cryoprotective solutions to reduce or prevent ice formation at cryogenic temperatures. Storage is the storage of a cryonics patient in liquid nitrogen. Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) involves standing by the bedside of a medically terminal patient destined to be cryopreserved, the application of a heart-lung resuscitator and ice-water cooling as soon as possible after declaration of death,and transport to a perfusion facility while tissues are still being stabilized at low temperature.

 

The following table represents the services which cryonics organizations say they provide.

 

NAMEPATIENT ADMINISTRATIONPERFUSIONSTORAGESST
AlcorYesYesYesYes
ACSYesYes*No*Yes*
CIYesYesYesNo*
KrioRusYesYesYesNo
Oregon CryonicsYesYesYesNo
SANo*NoNoYes
Trans TimeYesNoYesNo
*=simplification, see explanation

 

All standby cases done for Alcor Foundation outside of Arizona, but inside the continental United States are handled by Suspended Animation, Inc (SA). Alcor does standby for Alcor Members who are terminal in Arizona, Hawaii, and Alaska as well as in Canada. SA does not provide SST services outside the continental United States for any organization.

 

The American Cryonics Society (ACS) states that it mainly contracts with Suspended Animation,Inc. (SA) for perfusion and standby/transport, and contracts with the Cryonics Institute (CI) for storage. ACS also states that it has equipment, contractors and volunteers which are available for use in perfusion and standby in California should the need arise, although this is far less sophisticated and formal than what SA provides. ACS creates and manages individual charitable trusts for its patients. ACS regards these trusts as an important feature of the benefit gained by being an ACS Member.

 

Cryonics Institute (CI) Members who reside in the continental United States have the option of contracting directly with SA if they desire professional SST.In some cases volunteers or paid funeral directors have provided these services to CI Members. SA will keep records of CI Members who have arranged to have SA SST, but does not continue any administrative responsibility after the patient has been cryopreserved.

 

Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

Sizes of the Organizations

 

There are various ways by which organization size could be measured, but for the purposes of this section size is represented by the number of Members in the organization, the number of patients currently being stored in liquid nitrogen and the number of full-time paid staff in the organization. The figures below are for April 2017, and are based on the statements of the organization in question.

 

NAMEMEMBERSFUNDED MEMBERSPATIENTSSTAFF
Alcor1,639*1,132*1509*
ACS?*?*20*1*
CI1,384*?*151*3*
KrioRusN/AN/A527*
Oregon Cryonics8*N/A65*
SAN/AN/AN/A3*
Trans Time??31?
*=simplification, see explanation

 

The Membership statistics reported above are for living Members only. Both Alcor and CI patients are Members (except for the ACS patients at CI). The American Cryonics Society (ACS) has an organizational policy against publishing the number of Members it has in its organization. As of April 2017 the 20 ACS patients were all in storage at the Cryonics Institute (CI). ACS has had one part-time clerk to do office work and has otherwise relied on volunteers. Alcor has 9 full-time staff, 1 consultant, and 1 regular volunteer. The 151 patients in storage at CI includes 20 ACS patients. KrioRus has no Membership program, and the method of counting patients is odd — a few are not stored by KrioRus. KrioRus has 4 full-time and 3 part-time employees as well as numerous volunteers.

 

CI is a subcontractor for storage of 20 ACS patients. CI has three paid staff (two full-time and one part-time), a few contractors and many volunteers. Accounting is done by CI Treasurer Pat Heller (a CPA) with auditing by another CI Director. Trans Time does not report its Membership numbers. Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) only to other cryonics organizations (ACS, Alcor and CI), so it has no Members or Patients — so the reporting of Members or Patients for SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A). SA makes extensive use of subcontractors when needed.

 

As of April 2017, CI reported 136 pets, Alcor reported 58 pets, KrioRus reported 21 pets, and Oregon Cryonics reported 2 pets in cryopreservation.

 

Alcor and CI member numbers are not directly comparable because the word "Member" has different meanings for the two organizations. Membership in CI provides the privilege of obtaining cryopreservation services: pet, DNA or human cryopreservation. Many join CI only to store DNA or pets or to support CI, including some Alcor Members. Some Alcor Members have even made arrangements to use CI as a "back-up". Alcor does not allow its Members to have Alcor as a "back-up". Prior to April, 2012, all Alcor Members had made arrangements (ie, funding and contracts in place) for human cryopreservation and SST, but in April 2012 the Associate Alcor Member program was introduced. Associate Alcor Members do not have any cryopreservation arrangements with Alcor.

 

ForApril 2017, Alcor reported 1,639 living Members, 1,132 of whom had made arrangements for human cryopreservation, and 357 of whom were Associate Members. Of the 1,384 CI Members in April 2017, 212 of those had made arrangements for both human cryopreservation and standby/stabilization/transport (all with SA). In September 2015, CI ceased reporting how many of it Members have funding and contracts for cryopreservation. Historically, less than half of CI Members have been funded (prior CI statistics). Since 2006, CI offers a 'partnership' arrangement for CI Members for SA SST.

 

As noted in the previous section, Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

In 2011 and 2012 SA reorganized its staff to have more part-time employees and contractors, and for much of 2012 and 2013 SA was re-organizing to have facilities in both California and Florida.

 

Oregon Cryonics has an owner (Jordan Sparks) and four other full-time employees. OC has 9 Members, but is no longer accepting new Members..

 

Accounts of patient histories and membership growth can be found at:
--Cryonics Institute (CI) Patient Details
--Cryonics Institute (CI) Statistics Details
--Complete List of Alcor Cryopreservations
--Alcor Membership Statistics

 

Whole Body/Neuro Options

 

The term neuropreservation (or "neuro") generally refers to the practice of cryopreserving only the head rather than the whole body. A "neuro" is usually a whole head, not just the brain, but sometimes only the brain is cryopreserved. Keeping the whole head to preserve the brain is convenient for both perfusion and storage (the skull protects the brain). In some cases, however, "neuros" are brain-only. The following represent options various organizations say that they offer.

 

NAMEWHOLE BODYNEURO
AlcorYesYes
ACSYesNo*
CIYesNo
KrioRusYesYes
Oregon CryonicsNoYes
SAN/AN/A
Trans TimeYesYes
*=simplification, see explanation

 

Alcor states that its Members have the option of having their whole body cryopreserved or only their head ("neuro") — with different fees applicable to each choice. In April 2017, Alcor reported having 93 neuro, 54 whole body, and 4 neuro+whole bodypatients, whereas KrioRus reported 25 neuro and 27 whole-body patients. Trans Time has one whole body and two brains.

 

All CI Members with human cryopreservation arrangments are "whole body". ACS states that it does not have a policy against neuropreservation, but as long as it only uses CI as its subcontract or for storage it cannot offer neuro-cryopreservation as an option. Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides Standby/Stabilization/Transport only to other cryonics organizations, not storage, so the question of storage options with SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A).

 

Oregon Cryonics only stores heads and brains. As of February, 2016 Oregon Cryonics was chemically preserving three human brains, and cryopreserving one dog brain.

 

Cryopreservation and Yearly Fees

 

Comparing fees for human cryopreservation and yearly Membership or Emergency Responsibility is difficult to summarize in table form because the policies, procedures and options between the cryonics organization are so different. A great deal of explanation is required. Note that the high prices for human cryopreservation are generally covered by life insurance policies. The following represent the fees that the following organizations state that they charge.

 

NAMEWHOLE BODYNEUROYEARLY FEES
Alcor$200,000*$80,000*$620*
ACS$155,000*N/A$376*
CI$28,000*N/A$120*
KrioRus$36,000*$12,000None
Oregon CryonicsN/A$25,000*None
SAN/AN/ANone
Trans Time$150,000$50,000$96*
*=simplification,see explanation

To Alcor's yearly fee of $620 annual dues, those living in the United States and Canada must add $180 yearly SST fees for a total of $800 per year. A lifetime payment plan is also available. SST service is not available to Alcor Members outside of the US and Canada, but a $15,000 surcharge is added to whole body and neuro prices in the United Kingdom, and a $25,000 surcharge is added to the prices paid by those living in other countries. For details on Alcor pricing, see Schedule A: Required Costs and Suspension Funding Minimums.

 

The prices given for the American Cryonics Society (ACS) are intended to reflect comparable service to what Alcor provides. In fact, ACS has a very wide menu of options and prices available, including reference to a "California Procedure" which is intended to be distinguished from the"Michigan Procedure" offered by the Cryonics Institute. The yearly fee for an ACS Member is $376 for the first four years and $300 per year thereafter. For details on ACS options and fees, see:www.americancryonics.org.

 

The Cryonics Institute (CI) charges $28,000 for perfusion and storage of a Lifetime Member and $35,000 for a Yearly Member. These prices do not include funeral director costs or shipment to CI for non-local cases. (When CI was begun it was imagined that every state would have at least one cryonics service provider.) The Lifetime CI Member has paid a one-time $1,250 fee and the Yearly CI Member has paid a $75 initiation fee and is paying a $120 yearly fee. Discounts for additional family members and underage family members apply only to Lifetime Memberships. For service more comparable to what Alcor provides — including Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST) — a Lifetime Member pays $88,000 and a Yearly Member pays $95,000. For details on CI pricing see Membership andDetails Concerning SA Standby and Transport for CI Members.

 

For $49,000 KrioRus states that it offers Russians (Europeans?) the option of shipment and storage at the Cryonics Institute in the USA.

 

Oregon Cryonics charges $25,000 to cryopreserve a whole head, $18,000 for a brain with braincase, and $14,000 for a brain without the braincase. Oregon Cryonics will chemically preserve a brain for as little as $1,000 (see Oregon Cryonics Service Fees for details).

 

As noted in previous sections, Trans Time is currently storing patients, but (despite what their website says) is not currently seeking new Members or Patients.

 

Suspended Animation (SA) is a subcontractor which provides SST only to other cryonics organizations, not Membership or storage, so the question of these options with SA is "Not Applicable" (N/A).

 

Human Cryopreservation Procedures

 

Human cryopreservation procedures are much too complex to be summarized effectively here.

 

Alcor's procedures are summarized on a page of the Alcor website called Alcor Procedures. But is it also very helpful to read actual case reports of Alcor patients in the Cryopreservation Case Reports section of the Alcor website library.

 

CI has a summary of its procedures on its website calledGuide to Cryonics Procedures. CI procedures do not include Standby/Stabilization/Transport (SST), though CI will advise Members on obtaining assistance through local funeral directors. CI Members residing in the continental United States who wish to obtain SST can do so by subcontracting with Suspended Animation, Inc. (SA).

 

Although the American Cryonics Society (ACS) has equipment and volunteers which could be used if necessary, ACS basically relies on SA for Standby/Transport and CI for Perfusion/Storage.The human cryopreservation procedures of Trans Time and KrioRus are not documented on their websites.

 

Funding Cryonics by Insurance
The cost of cryonics is many thousands of dollars, but most cryonicists cover these costs with life insurance policies that name a cryonics organization as beneficiary. Premiums of life insurance policies are most affordable for those who are young and healthy. It is not prudent to seek life insurance in old age or after a terminal illness (when life insurance may be unobtainable). Nor is it prudent to believe that cryonics arrangements can be made efficiently or successfully when in a terminal condition.

 

Rudi Hoffman sells the great majority of cryonics life insurance policies. It makes good sense to take advantage of Rudi's considerable expertise in matters of cryonics and life insurance. (A sincere and unpaid plug for Rudi.)

Even Lower Levels of Activity are Associated with Improved Health

by @ LongeCityNews

With the advent of low-cost accelerometers, epidemiological studies are beginning to show that even lower levels of sustained activity correlate with reduced mortality and improved health: walking, gardening, cleaning, and similar tasks that don't rise to the level of vigorous exercise. Animal studies of vigorous exercise show that this exercise causes gains in long-term health, and the consensus is that this is the direction of causation for correlations observed in human data. Should we expect the same to hold for lower levels of activity in humans, where there is no comparable animal data to support causation? This study does not make use of accelerometers, but does include populations that are not frequently assessed, and finds the same association between health and low levels of activity.

Physical activity of any kind can prevent heart disease and death, says a large international study involving more than 130,000 people from 17 countries. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study shows any activity is good for people to meet the current guideline of 30 minutes of activity a day, or 150 minutes a week to raise the heart rate. Although previous research, from high income countries, shows leisure time activity helps prevent heart disease and death, the PURE study also includes people from low and middle-income countries where people don't generally don't participant in leisure-time physical activity. "By including low and middle-income countries in this study, we were able to determine the benefit of activities such as active commuting, having an active job or even doing housework." One in four people worldwide do not meet the current activity guideline and that number is nearly three of four in Canada.

The PURE study showed that by meeting the activity guidelines, the risk for death from any cause was reduced by 28%, while heart disease was reduced by 20%, and it didn't matter what type of physical activity the person did. The benefits also continued at very high levels with no indication of a ceiling effect; people getting more than 750 minutes of brisk walking per week had a 36% reduction in risk of death. However, less than 3% of participants achieved this level from leisure time activity while 38% of participants achieved this level from activities such as commuting, being active at work or doing household chores.

"Going to the gym is great, but we only have so much time we can spend there. If we can walk to work, or at lunch time, that will help too. For low and middle income countries where having heart disease can cause a severe financial burden, physical activity represents a low-cost approach that can be done throughout the world with potential large impact. If everyone was active for at least 150 minutes per week, over seven years a total of 8% of deaths could be prevented,"

Link: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-09/mu-bas092017.php


View the full article at FightAging

Beauty In Orbit: The New Space-Themed Vegan Cuts Box

by Aly Laughlin @ Cruelty-Free Kitty

I’m here with another installment of the Vegan Cuts Beauty Box, this time with their “Beauty in Orbit” filled with lunar-inspired goodies. The Vegan Cuts Beauty Box is a monthly subscription box filled with 4-7 totally vegan and cruelty-free products. Keep reading for my thoughts on the products included in the July “Beauty in Orbit” […]

The post Beauty In Orbit: The New Space-Themed Vegan Cuts Box appeared first on Cruelty-Free Kitty.

Just here is improve brain health

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

I've had some serious health issues, which I have mostly fixed. Even my brain stopped working properly at one point. At 22 I tested above 130 IQ, and at 26 I could not manage multiplication because nothing was working. I'm mostly OK, but I am still interested in making sure my brain actually works. I know quite a bit about health, though my views are quite heterodox.

Sunscreen

by Sina @ beautyheaven - Suncare

My skin is oily in the t zone and i have tried a lot of sunscreen. But they all end up being gressy and oily on my skin. Any suggestions anyone? Also I have some pimples in my cheeks.

625

Nootropics in human trials (Intro)

by @ LongeCity - Articles

The word "nootropic" derives from the Greek words nous, or "mind", and trepein meaning "to bend or turn". It was first coined by Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea after synthesizing Piracetam.
For Giurgea a nootropic drug should have the following characteristics:
1. They should enhance learning and memory.
2. They should enhance the resistance of learned behaviors/memories to conditions which tend to disrupt them (e.g. electroconvulsive shock, hypoxia).
3. They should protect the brain against various physical or chemical injuries (e.g. barbiturates, scopalamine).
4. They should increase the efficacy of the tonic cortical/subcortical control mechanisms.
5. They should lack the usual pharmacology of other psychotropic drugs (e.g. sedation, motor stimulation) and possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

In fact, most drugs commonly labelled as nootropics do not fulfill all of these requirements. Some of the best known (e.g. Adderall, Modafinil) seem to not fulfill any, as discussed later. Instead, other characteristics like (reputed increased alertness, focus or motivation) seem to be key to their popularity.
Because of deviating definitions nootropics are more broadly defined (e.g. in wikipedia) as drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals. 

Some nootropics from the very common to the :

Caffeine
Caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant (Nawrot, et al., 2003). It is used by over 90 % of North Americans every day (Mednick et al., 2008). It is widely used because of its positive effects on mood and alertness (Lorist & Tops, 2003)and vigilance and attention (Lieberman et al., 1987). However, these effects do not seem applicable / transferable to motor learning and verbal memory and are unable to reverse effects of sleep deprivation, with a dose of 200mg in low to moderate users (< than 2 cups a day) (Mednick et al., 2008). It is also shown to be ineffective in higher cognitive tasks involving working memory (Battig et al., 1984). Overall conclusions regarding the relation of caffeine and memory have been mixed. Positive effects might stem from caffeine withdrawal in high dosage users (Mednick et al., 2008).

Nicotine
With about 1,1 billion smokers worldwide in the year 2015 (WHO 2015) nicotine takes second place as the most widely used stimulant. It was shown that the application of nicotine in non-smoking males enhances performance in continuous performance tasks and therefore is said to improve attention and working-memory (Kumari, et al., 2003), which is in line with other studies suggesting that nicotine affects short-term memory in delayed free recall tasks (Sarah & Fox, 1998)
Another study examined nicotine’s effects on alertness and performance on a covert orienting task were measured. While nicotine decreased overall reaction times in the covert orienting task, there was no change in the validity effect, the reaction time difference between validly and invalidly cued targets. However, nicotine significantly improved both EEG and self-rated measures of alertness. Nicotine seems to increases alertness in non-smokers, with no improvement in spatial attention using a covert orienting task (Griesar et al., 2002). Furthermore Nicotine seems to reduce distraction under low perceptual load by acting as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness (Behler et al., 2015).

Methylphenidate/ Ritalin
Most college students I know will immediately think of Ritalin or Modafinil if they are asked to name a cognitive enhancer. Studies have found that 4.1% to 10.8% of college students in the US reported using prescription stimulants non-medically during the past year (Garnier-Dykstra, et al., 2012).
Methylphenidate (MPH - common brand name ‘Ritalin’) is used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Most studies focused on the its effects on Attention, Mood, Memory and executive functions. A single dose of MPH showed a positive effect on memory. Repeated doses of MPH had a mood elevating effect but also enhanced anxiety. No statistically significant effect was found in the outcomes attention, mood and executive functions. MPH had no significant effect on sleep-deprived individuals (Repantis et al., 2010). In a 2015 review the authors found some ‘publication bias’, relating to long-term and working memory and conclude that the effect in healthy subject is probably modest overall and that healthy users resort to stimulants to enhance their energy and motivation more than their cognition (Ilieva et al., 2015). 

Modafinil
Modafinil is used in treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Most studies focused on its effects on attention, mood, memory, wakefulness and executive functions and motivation. A single dose showed positive effects on attention only. On sleep deprived individuals it was shown to have an impact on executive functions, on memory and wakefulness but there was an insignificant effect on mood and attention (Repantis et al., 2010). A 2012 meta-analysis found that Modafinil was likely effective but criticised the gaps in the literature. (Kelley et al., 2012) 
A recent study on chess players found significantly enhanced performance with Modafinil or Ritalin but only when the players were not under time pressure (Franke et al. 2017). 

Adderall
Mixed Amphetamine Salts also known under the brand Name Adderall became increasingly popular in recent years as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer. Like Ritalin, it is also used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.
Overall effects of Adderall on cognition have been reviewed as very modest, while having a huge effect on perception. It was found to enhance performance in word recall, embedded figures and Raven's Progressive Matrices, but only for lower performing individuals (Ilieva et al., 2013). Adderall might also impair creativity in high performing individuals (Farah et al., 2009).

L-theanine & Caffeine
L- theanine is primarily found in plants (e.g. in the leaves of green and black tea) and fungus. Results evidently demonstrated that L-theanine clearly has a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in normal healthy subjects susceptible to having high anxiety (Higashiyama et al., 2011).
A dose of L-theanine equivalent to eight cups of black tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. The combination of Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses (Kahathuduwa et al.,2016).
Studies suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task (Giesbrecht 2010).

Bacopa Monnieri
Bacopa Monnieri is an herb which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. Bacopa's primary mechanism of action is still unclear, it seems to be an anti-oxidant, a weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a cerebral blood flow activator (Aguiar & Borowski , 2013).
There is some evidence to suggest that Bacopa Monnieri improves memory with little evidence of enhancement in any other cognitive domains (Pase et al., 2012).

Piracetam
Closing the circle to the beginning of this short introduction to the topic: Giurgea first coined the term "nootropic" when he synthesized Piracetam in 1964. Since it is not approved by the US FDA, it is primarily used in Europe, Asia, and South America. It is commonly prescribed for cognitive impairment and dementia in several countries of Europe. Research suggests that Piracetam might also have a positive effect on healthy individuals. Subjects were given 3×4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased (Dimond & Brouwers, 1976). It might also be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with age. Aging subjects did significantly better in a computerized perceptual-motor tasks when on piracetam than on a placebo. (Mindus et al. 1976). While these old studies may not be that reliable, it is still held that Piracetam's “efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia. While high doses are sometimes necessary, piracetam is well tolerated” (Winblad, 2005). Since Piracetam was first synthesized many structurally similar compounds have emerged. These so called Racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems (Gualtieri et al., 2002).


This article is solely for information purposes, not a substitute for professional medical or dietary advice. 
The provisos of the LongeCity user agreement apply.

write for LongeCity



References
* Aguiar, S., & Borowski , T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research, 313-326. 
* Battig , K., Martin, J. R., & Feierabend , J. M. (1984). The effects of caffeine on physiological functions and mental performance. Experentia, 1218–1223.
* Behler , O., Breckel, T. P., & Thiel , C. M. (2015). Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load. Psychopharmacology, 1269-1277.
* Dimond, S. J., & Brouwers, E. M. (1976). Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology, 307-309.
* Farah , M., Haimm , C., Sankoorikal , G., Smith , M., & Chatterjee , A. (2009). When we enhance cognition with Adderall, do we sacrifice creativity? A preliminary study. Psychopharmacology,541-547.
* Franke, A.G.; Gränsmark, P., Agricola, A., Schühle, K., Rommel, T., Sebastian, A., Balló, H.E., Gorbulev, S., Gerdes, C., Frank, B., Ruckes, C., Tüscher, O., Lieb, K. (2017) "Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial" in: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol27, Issue 3, 1, pp248-260
* Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Arria, A. M. (2012).Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: Four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources. J Am Coll Health, 226-234.
* Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft , J. A., Rowson , M. J., & De Bruin , E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutritional Neuroscience, 283-290.
* Griesar , W. S., Zajdel , D. P., & Oken , B. (2002). Nicotine effects on alertness and spatial attention in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 185-194.
* Gualtieri , F., Manetti , D., Romanelli , M. N., & Ghelardini , C. (2002). Design and study of piracetamlike nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 125-138.
* Higashiyama, A., Htay, H. H., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Kapoor, M. P. (2011). Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional Foods, 171-178.
* Ilieva, I., Boland, J., & Farah, M. (2013). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology, 496-505.
* Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ. (2015) Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis.; J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 Jun;27(6):1069-89. 
* Kahathuduwa, C. N., Dassanayake , T. L., Amarakoon , A. M., & Weerasinghe, V. S. (2016). Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutritional Neuroscience.
* Kelley, A.M.; Webb, C.M., Athy, J.R., Ley, S., Gaydos, S. (2012) "Cognition enhancement by modafinil: A meta-analysis" in Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine; Vol83, Issue 7, p685-690
* Kumari, V., Gray, J., H ffytche, D., Mitterschiffthaler, M., Das, M., Zachariah, E., . . . Sharma, T. (2003). Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 1002-1013.
* Lieberman , H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts , C., & Coviella, I. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood. Psychopharmacology, 308-312.
* Lorist , M. M., & Tops, M. (2003). Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain Cognition, 82-94.
* Mednick, S. C., Cai, D. J., Kanady, J., & Drummond, S. P. (2008). Comparing the benefits of Caffeine,Naps and Placebo on Verbal, Motor and Perceptual Memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 79–86.
* Mindus , P., Cronholm , B., Levander , S. E., & Schalling , D. (1976). Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 150-160.
* Nawrot, P., Jordan, S., Eastwood , J., Rotstein , J., Hugenholtz, A., & Feeley, M. (2003). Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives & Contaminants, 1-30.
* Pase, M. P., Kean , J., Sarris , J., Neale , C., Scholey , A. B., & Stough , C. (2012). The cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 647-652.
* Repantis , D., Schlattmann , P., Laisney , O., & Heuser, I. (2010). Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review. Pharmacological Research, 187-206.
* Sarah , P., & Fox, P. (1998). An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.Psychopharmacology, 429-433.
* WHO (2015). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000-2025. WHO Library Cataloguing-in Publication Data .
* Winblad, B. (2005). Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses. CNS Drug reviews, 169-182.

SephoraBox : Une box de 18 minitaures offertes d�s 80� d'achat !

by @ Beaut�-test.com : Nouveaux bons plans

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Bon plan du 22/09/2017, valable encore 9 jours

Morning dizzyness, derealization and brainfog. What is the root of the probleM?

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

I figured out that high cortisol level could cause my symptoms: red face, brainfog and tiredness. I used ashvagandha and phosphatidylserine(before rhodiola rosea) and i think that worked out because i no longer have so often red face and brafing during the day was much less I quit energy drinks which i have drunk often because i know high caffeine doses usage cause high cortisol + it was a lot of sugar. and i got total caffeine tolerance so it made me tired. Nevertheless im still feeling depersonalized and foggy after waking up in the morning. Not always just after waking up but much more often after breakfast and when going to work. At nights, even if i drink caffeine or eat unhealthy food i always feel good. I was wondering if it was caused by diet but im not sure since this "night relieve" and i tested myself for lyme disaese but test showed only a bit higher IgG level IgM was normal.

What can i try to fight this morning derealization and brainfog?

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ Review

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ Review


Makeupandbeauty.com

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ I apply ¼ tablespoon of this sunscreen after my moisturizer.

Top 10 Best Sunscreens Reviewed In 2016

Top 10 Best Sunscreens Reviewed In 2016


BuyTheTOP10

Beauty is an essential aspect for many, especially the women. To ensure your skin stays healthy and well protected from the damage caused by sunlight, suns

The Best Waterproof Sunscreen

The Best Waterproof Sunscreen


Ranker

List of best waterproof sunscreens for swimming and sporting available on the market. The terms Waterproof sunblock and sweatproof sunblock should be taken with a grain of salt because no sun protection product is completely water-proof or sweat-proof, and no product truly 'blocks' the sun. T...

Japanese Brush Starter Kit – Face Brushes

by Karima McKimmie @ Shameless Fripperies

Get yourself some snacks or nonperishable canned goods because this is a monster post! Welcome back to part 2 of the ‘Japanese Brush Starter Kit’, today we’re talking face brushes! In an attempt to make sense of the vast variety of brushes available, I’ve broken it down to 10 different categories so you can customise […]

The post Japanese Brush Starter Kit – Face Brushes appeared first on Shameless Fripperies.

Write for LongeCity

by @ LongeCity - Articles

There are 4 ways of writing for LongeCity:

(1) Commissioned topics 
800-1500 word (ca. 2-3 pages) articles on any of the topics listed below. 
As long as the topic is listed, it remains open for submissions.
Authors are invited to submit a finished manuscript directly to caliban@longecity.org. Responses can be expected with 14 days after submission. 
Editors may require certain alterations for style, quality or based on peer-reviewed references, but publication is guaranteed for commissioned articles if the article meets a basic quality threshold.

(2) Submit an exposé for a new topic
You can send us a 200 word article outline, accompanied with a few lines about yourself. If accepted, you will be invited to submit a full article. 
Please use the contact form

Reward per published article: $180 (a premium may be awarded for particularly well-researched articles)

(3) Write a blog or (4) write on the forum
You can either start a blog at LongeCity or easily synchronise a blog that you maintain elsewhere. If your blog is consistently of interest and of good quality, you will automatically be awarded ‘Thank You’ points which can be redeemed for vouchers at online stores such as amazon. We might also ask you to do a regular column.
Thank you points also accrue to forum posts, as readers 'like' your posts. 

All articles and other written contribution are subject to the general LongeCity User agreement. In short authors keep full copyright of the article, but grant a free perpetual and worldwide license to LongeCity for non-commercial use. 



 -- current open commissions --

- ...
- Antioxidants: relevant for life extension?
- Brain transplantation: a medical impossibility?
- Cancer Risks in everyday products
- Cryonics: a scientific and technical description
- Current clinical trials particularly relevant to life extension
- DIYbio projects directed at life extension
- Gene Therapy: An update
- Heart attacks and strokes – emergency measures.
- Is advanced artificial intelligence the key to life extension?
- Lay diagnosis: spotting warning signs that could save your life
- Leaving Earth: seeding human life elsewhere
- Life extension enthusiasts of the 20th century: lessons for today
- Long term planning: trends and projections until 2200
- Mapping the life extension scene
- Nanomedicine: recent advances
- Nootropics in human trials: the evidence
- Overpopulation and Life Extension
- Prepping: the 10 most useful tips
- Profile: ‘XXX’ – a life extension pioneer
- Religion and the life extension movement: at loggerheads?
- Religion, Pets, Relationships: Lifestyle and life expectancy.
- SENS: An update
- Sport & bodybuilding: will it extend or shorten your lifespan?
- Stress & Aging: what is the evidence?
- Supplements with a proven life extension benefit – any?

Kryolan Polyester Glimmer Medium Lavender Review

by Esha Pandit @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hi everyone, Most of the glitters that I added recently to my collection have a fine texture. The best thing about them is that they adhere to the skin easily without any fuss even when you are not using glue or a mixing medium. But, this lavender color is too beautiful and I bought it […]

The post Kryolan Polyester Glimmer Medium Lavender Review appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

Life Insurance and Divorce – What You Should Know

by Cleo @ Health I.Q.

Divorce is one of the most stressful and heartbreaking events that a person can endure. Divvying up property, money, and sorting out child custody are among the most daunting tasks, yet few realize that life insurance is an integral portion of the divorce settlement. It enables both parties to ensure they have the financial support […]

The post Life Insurance and Divorce – What You Should Know appeared first on Health I.Q. .

How to Remove Tough Underarm Stains and Odors on Shirts

by Lauren Hill @ Mama's Laundry Talk

One of the most frequent types of emails I receive from readers is this: How do I remove underarm stains and odors from my shirts? Underarm stains can appear yellow on white/light shirts.  Sometimes they appear as crunchy areas in the underarm area or as darkened areas on darker fabrics. I’ll be honest:  underarm stains […]

The post How to Remove Tough Underarm Stains and Odors on Shirts appeared first on Mama's Laundry Talk.

Best Cruelty-Free Sunscreens No Matter Your Budget

Best Cruelty-Free Sunscreens No Matter Your Budget


Cruelty-Free Kitty

Sunscreen should be an essential part of every person's skincare regimen. Here are my top 5 picks for the best cruelty-free sunscreens, for every budget.

Paul Spiegel ($100.00)

by @ Last 10 Donations RSS Feed

No donation note left by user.

LongeCity science support: quick guide/FAQ

by @ Archive - Articles

What is LongeCity?
LongeCity is a registered, members-based non-profit organisation.
More info here.


What THEMES of science projects does LongeCity support?
We support research into ageing and the extension of human lifespan. This means we support many types of medical research and research into basic biology, but there should be an angle that will allow people to live longer, healthier lives.


What TYPES of science projects does LongeCity support?
We support laboratory research, clinical research, bioinformatics and theoretical research in the ‘hard sciences’. We do not normally support social science research.
We do support some events, mentorship and travel to scientific conferences, but not under the ‘research budget’.


Where can the research take place?
Anywhere in the world. Laboratory research should normally be conducted in an established lab.


What does LongeCity expect in return?
Scientific integrity. Normally a written report. Interim updates for longer projects. Acknowledgement of the funding received. We may approach previous grantholders to be available as peer reviewers for future research applications.


What grant schemes are available?

a) Small Grants
Funding: up to $500
Who can apply: any LongeCity Member, it helps if you have a sponsor/supervisor with some track record
Type: typical cases are support for summer projects, internships, workshops, review paper writing, selected consumables
Next deadline: none, applications are welcome until the annual budget is exhausted
Details: http://www.longecity...s/action/grants

b) Matching Fundraiser
Funding: up to $20.000 (in total- matching fundraiser)
Who can apply: Scientists
Type: For selected projects, LongeCity will issue a call for donations and for every dollar received LongeCity will match (or better) the donation. The entire money goes to support the research project.
Next deadline: July 1st 2013
Details: http://www.longecity...ts/research2013


Questions?
Contact us.

Big in Japan – Zinc based sunscreens with a twist

Big in Japan – Zinc based sunscreens with a twist


Realize Beauty

Here in Australia we (well the natural side of the market) have an obsession with zinc-only sunscreens and as such I have spent much of the last three years working on various ways to marry a  high…

Longecity Blog - win$100 for 'best regimen'

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

The forum structure at the heart of LongeCity works well in facilitating a free flow of communication and information exchange.
Other more structured ways of curating information have their own advantages, but their adoption appears to be more difficult.

 

In 2014 we closed the 'regimen' forums for brain enhancement and general supplements in favour of a new 'stacks' function.
aiming to generating a searchable database of combinations as an easily accessible resource.

 

It took some time for the new feature to gain traction. In some areas this worked ok, in others we still don't have any entries.

 

To further promote the feature we are launching a small COMPETITION for the BEST REGIMEN in each category.

 

On Sept.1st LongeCity leadership will draw up a shortlist of the most promising entries for each existing category:

  • Life Extension, General Health;
  • Alertness, Cognition, Mood
  • Sports, Performance, Bodybuilding
  • Medical
  • Weight Loss
  • Beauty, Cosmetics, Skin, Anti-Aging
This shortlist will be based (but not necessarily bound) by the average of the "star ratings" an entry has received from all LongeCity readers!
The Immortality Institute Members will then vote on a winner from each shortlist
The winner in each category* will receive $100 (via paypal) and 100.

 

(* yes, that means that the winning chance in the currently empty, or sparsely populated categories might be higher)

 

At least for the duration of the competition, the old 'stacks' forums will re-open. We hope that by now everyone has understood the distinction we are aiming for: the 'regimen' feature is for presenting and discussing structured regimens that can be considered, compared and potentially adopted by others down the ages, the forums are for more free-wheeling conversation that might be more speculative, protracted and less likely to hold a swift take-away message for others.

The Best Sunscreens for Not Feeling Like a Greased Sausage

The Best Sunscreens for Not Feeling Like a Greased Sausage


GQ

The best sunscreen is from Japan—featuring a water-weight, scentless formula that disappears on skin as if you weren’t wearing anything in the first place.

Amazon: Une box beaut� d�s 40� d'achat !

by @ Beaut�-test.com : Nouveaux bons plans

Amazon: Une box beaut� d�s 40� d'achat !

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Sugarpill Cosmetics Eyeshadows and Pro Palette Preview

by Neha A @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hello everyone, You all are aware of my love for “the colorful.” Give me any color of the rainbow and I will make it my own and my next haul reflects exactly that. I hauled a whole bunch of eyeshadows from the Indie brand Sugarpill which is the brand put on radar by drag queens. […]

The post Sugarpill Cosmetics Eyeshadows and Pro Palette Preview appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

Research funding 2013: Expression of interest s...

by @ Archive - Articles

LongeCity continues to support small-scale, high-impact life extension research with community crowdfunding.
(For a review of previous projects see here)

Projects should:
- aim to make a scientific contribution to the extension of the human lifespan
- be applied research or basic research with some potential for applied development
- present short updates for LongeCity Members with interim data, photos from the facility etc at agreed intervals
- be led or overseen by a person with a postgraduate qualification in the relevant field or by a person with demonstrable equivalent experience
- have a flexible project structure that can be adjusted according to the amount of money raised
- be small in scale - one or two key workers
- be short in duration - approx 6 months maximum
- not be confidential. LongeCity will expect open and public presentation and discussion of research results. However, confidentiality will be accepted where a manuscript or patent is in preparation.

In 2013, we are not just matching, but trebling donations
LongeCity will launch a call for donations. Every donation received will be trebled. Projects can have a total budget of $3.000- $21.000. (Hence needing to raise only $1.000-$7.000)

Interested applicants should send
- a project outline of no more than 1000 words written in lay language (can be supported by up to 10 literature references)
- a curriculum vitae of the project leader
to research@longecity.org


Deadline: July 1st 2013 (or until further notice).

Top 10 Makeup Products For 2016

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

As we finally, finally (almost!) draw the curtains on this tumultuous year, I wanted to do a quick round up of my top 10 makeup products for 2016.  I don’t think I’ve made so many drastic changes all at once in my life before, and frankly I’m still trying to find my footing. But there’s always joy […]

The post Top 10 Makeup Products For 2016 appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Slow down of mortality rate at ~115 ? Why ?

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

When considering SENS and the more conventional disease-centered approach, one of the many objections to SENS is that no radicalism is needed due to the progresses in medicine as shown when comparing life expectancy  (LE) say between 1840's and present times.

 

Indeed, an outstanding 42 years for women are gained (from 45 to 87) over 170 years (ref here and here)

 

However, a point Dr. David Wood did not fail to miss in his truly excellent book “Abolishing Aging” (see chapter 2, Q2), is that, when taking into account childhood health improvements, the mature LE gain reduces to a less impressive 15 years over the same 170 years (from 64.6 to 79.2 in women, ref here). So passing the 1840’s dangerous childhood years seems to be a reasonable explication to the substantial 42 years rise in LE. Wood then argue that a more radical approach, possibly à-la-SENS or “rejuveneering” (from the contraction of rejuvenation and engineering) would be needed if we want to do more.

 

I hazard a comparison with what looks to happen in the very last stages of life of supercentenarians but still struggle to find an explication.

 

It looks like that the exponential increase of mortality rate slows down starting at about 115 (e.g. see Dr. Aubrey de Grey’s presentation here).  Technically this is a deviation from the Gompertz-Makham’s “law”. What can be the explication assuming this effect is real as Aubrey convincingly argues?

 

In other words, I wonder what could be the equivalent of letting passing the dangerous childhood years, likely by the progress of medicine against infections, in the case of supercentenarians. It is just like the very old starts be to “forgotten” by Nature.

 

Can an explication be found in that, just as that passing the infection driven dangers of childhood years increased substantially the life expectancy in the 1840’s, passing the killing cancers before the very old age picks up slows down mortality. Eventually death will take back its toll much later in age by late cancers disruption or, ironically, by the same increased susceptibility, this time for the very old, to infections. Would this make sense?

Why you shouldn’t get: Guerlain Meteorites

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

Growing up, there were always certain beauty products I coveted from afar. You know, those ones. Chanel No.5. Dior Addict Gloss. YSL Touche Eclat. It’s funny how now I’m cringing even as I type, when I once ooh-ed over these luxurious babies and wished for my own. The iconic Guerlain Meteorites was one of those […]

The post Why you shouldn’t get: Guerlain Meteorites appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Alternative Splicing and Cancer

by @ LongeCityNews

Of late, there has been some discussion in the research community on the role of alternative splicing in aging. Is it a relevant mechanism, and where does it fit in the chain of cause and consequence that leads to age-related disease? In the line of research noted here, the relevance of alternative splicing to cancer is considered - and of course cancer is certainly an age-related condition in the sense that the risk rises considerably with the years.

Alternative splicing refers to the fact that one stretch of DNA, one gene, can code for multiple different proteins. Just like epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, this is another way in which the balance of proteins produced from the genetic blueprint can change over time, in reaction to changing circumstances. So at first glance, age-related changes to alternative splicing look a lot like cellular reactions to rising levels of molecular damage, and are thus probably a secondary consequence of the causes of aging. Proving that beyond a doubt of course requires the implementation of therapies capable of repairing that damage, of which clearance of senescent cells is the closest to clinical availability.

Cancer, which is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, arises from the disruption of essential mechanisms of the normal cell life cycle, such as replication control, DNA repair and cell death. Thanks to the advances in genome sequencing techniques, biomedical researchers have been able to identify many of the genetic alterations that occur in patients and are common among and between tumor types. But until recently, only mutations in DNA were thought to cause cancer. In a new study, researchers show that alterations in a process known as alternative splicing may also trigger the disease.

Although DNA is the instruction manual for a cell growth, maturation, division, and even death, it's proteins that actually carry out the work. The production of proteins is a highly regulated and complex mechanism: cellular machinery reads the DNA fragment that makes up a gene, transcribes it into RNA and, from the RNA, makes proteins. However, each gene can lead to several RNA molecules through alternative splicing, an essential mechanism for multiple biological processes that can be altered in disease conditions.

Using data for more than 4,000 cancer patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas, a team has analyzed the changes in alternative splicing that occur in each tumor patient and studied how these changes could impact the function of genes. The results of the study show that alternative splicing changes lead to a general loss of functional protein domains, and particularly those domains related to functions that are also affected by genetic mutations in cancer patients. "Thanks to our previous research, we know that tumor type and stage can be predicted by observing alterations in alternative splicing. With this new study, we have discovered that changes in alternative splicing that occur in cancer impact protein functions in a way that is similar to that previously described for genetic mutations." All of these alterations in protein functions would cause changes in cells morphology and function, giving them the characteristics of tumor cells, such as a high proliferative potential or the ability to avoid programmed cell death.

Link: https://www.upf.edu/en/home/-/asset_publisher/UI8Z8VAxU47P/content/id/91248590/maximized


View the full article at FightAging

KAO BIORE UV PERFECT FACE MILK SUNSCREEN LOTION SPF50+ PA++++  SEBUM-ABSORBING  | eBay

KAO BIORE UV PERFECT FACE MILK SUNSCREEN LOTION SPF50+ PA++++ SEBUM-ABSORBING | eBay


eBay

Superior lightweight UV block for face, Matt Effect. Provides long-lasting UV protection of SPF50 / PA . It has an ultra light, non-sticky texture. Also an ideal makeup base, it contains Sebum-absorbing powder to give you that matt look and keep skin shine-free. | eBay!

The Seven Weirdest Things Ever Insured

by Cleo @ Health I.Q.

For most of us, insurance needs are limited to life, home, and auto. In some special cases, though, people have purchased insurance policies to protect against events that are slightly less ordinary. Lloyd’s of London specializes in these unusual policies. Read on to learn more about the seven weirdest things ever insured. When you’re done, […]

The post The Seven Weirdest Things Ever Insured appeared first on Health I.Q. .

Local Meetings

by @ Active Goals RSS Feed

Goal Runtime: 18 August 2014 - 07:17 PM - Continuous Goal
To support local meetings during for the International Longevity Day and beyond.

LongeCityNow_AubreyDeGrey_2016.mp3

by @ Last 10 Submissions RSS Feed

A 2016 research and progress update from the SENS Foundation and Aubrey DeGrey.

The Best Face Sunscreens, By Popular Demand

The Best Face Sunscreens, By Popular Demand


Into The Gloss

The full spectrum of the best face sunscreens that work sans breakouts or ghostly white pallor, as recommended by readers like you

Wolf has been Cried So Very Many Times When it Comes to Anti-Aging Therapies

by @ LongeCityNews

If you look at the media coverage of work on senolytic therapies, treatments that can clear out senescent cells and thus remove the contribution of these cells to the aging process, it is usually the case that there isn't much to distinguish it from the coverage of any random claim of progress towards anti-aging effects from either within or outside the scientific community: supplements, vitamins, diets, pharmaceuticals, and so forth. None of these other items work in the sense of repairing some of the cell and tissue damage that causes aging. The few that do slow aging do so marginally and in many cases unreliably. The output of the press is not the place one should be looking for accuracy or enlightenment, and it is futile to either demand or expect it to become any better than it is at the moment. Nonetheless, it is somewhat frustrating to see this in action now that the world is changing, and the first means of producing actual rejuvenation is almost upon us.

One could probably construct a metric of press quality that progresses in a spectrum from the worst tabloid to the best popular science effort, constructed on the basis of whether one can see any difference in the coverage of, say, the effects of senolytics on longevity (significant) and the effects of blueberry consumption on longevity (non-existent). Are objective measures offered? Is the tone exactly the same? Is the hypothetically entirely ignorant reader left thinking that senolytics and blueberries are in the same bucket of expected benefit? Or how about senolytics and antioxidant supplements? Or senolytics and whatever the diet of the month happens to be today? Or senolytics and metformin? Or senolytics and vitamin C? And so forth.

One of the problems here is that much of the press has a very limited number of buckets with which to categorize things, and an equally limited set of output formats. This is how they work cost-effectively when not being paid to propagate a specific viewpoint. So once a thing is tagged as "someone claims this can treat aging," into the same bucket as blueberries and metformin it goes, and the public at large is duly informed - with no attempt to draw any sort of distinction of truth, quality, or expected value to patients. Thus we live in a world in which everyone is told, repeatedly, that ways of turning back aging exist. Since we are in fact all aging to death, no-one believes this to be true. Or if they do, they know that the effects are obviously small and limited, or involve papering over aging in some way without much affecting the self-evident fact that people get old and die. Smoke and mirrors.

Now, I think that the public at large is generally smarter than most journalists credit. Media is primarily used as a way to note the advent of new things and changes in existing things, not as a resource for specific details. Even when the quality is terrible, it is better than trying to find out yourself, even if finding out for yourself was a practical possibility. However, this system breaks down in the scenario in which the media treats all new things in a category as being different shades of the same item. Blueberries and senolytics, just colors of blue or red on the same basic model. People then filter out these updates as being just background noise, and rationally so until now.

I have a vision of what will happen after the first human trials of senolytics demonstrate promise: much of the press will mangle this into something that looks exactly the same as a discussion of the alleged (and entirely non-existent) power of blueberries. It won't be the case that the populations of the world will suddenly awake to the possibilities. Only the parts of it that were already paying attention. Even after significant short-term benefits in human patients are demonstrated to result from the targeted removal of senescent cells, there will still be a need for advocacy and outreach to pull in significantly more funding to the field. That process of fundraising will certainly become easier, but it won't be the case that senolytics will the very next day be a word heard on every street corner.

There is a saying regarding the fact that every good idea needs to be forced upon people, following them to every venue, and waved under their noses until they have no choice but to consider it. It will be that way for the first rejuvenation therapies. It will probably be that way for the second, because they will be different, and work in different ways. Progress in creating the foundations of the future medical industry of rejuvenation becomes incrementally less challenging to engineer the more that the benefits are proven, but it will never become simply easy.


View the full article at FightAging

DMSO with pregnenolone (etc) to increase testosterone

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Hello, I finally got around to testing vitamin B5 and pregnenolone for increasing testosterone and other male hormones.

 

My hypothesis is that while pregnenolone orally and transdermally is useless for increasing androgens (proven in studies), pregnenolone applied directly to the testicle area is not useless because pregnenolone's metabolism to androgens happens only locally in the testicles and oral consumption or transdermal application (elsewhere) does not cause pregnenolone to circulate to the testicles in any significant amount.

 

My second hypothesis is that since vitamin B5 increases activity of the 5 alpha reductase enzyme, which metabolizes testosterone to other androgens, application of vitamin B5 to the testicle area can increase testosterone metabolites.

 

My third hypothesis is relevant to phosphatidylserine (only from animal brain, soy source doesn't work) and increasing 5 alpha reductase in testicles (some rat study) but I don't have it at hand, I will soon buy it and test it perhaps.

 

Just 30 minutes ago I took a 500mg vitamin B5 and 10mg pregnenolone capsules (with fillers) and added it to a small dmso solution. I marinated my testicles in the solution until no liquid or powder was left in the jar and here's what I noticed:

1. Immediately I felt a need to urinate.

2. Reddening and itching of my sac.

3. Usual disgusting garlic taste in mouth.

4. PERHAPS, MAYBE a tiny sedative effect. I am not sure so don't take it for anything.

 

I cannot feel that I have taken pregnenolone or b5, although oddly most other supplements I mix with dmso do produce their usual brain effects immediately.

DMSO with pregnenolone (etc) to increase testosterone

by @ Health

Hello, I finally got around to testing vitamin B5 and pregnenolone for increasing testosterone and other male hormones.

 

My hypothesis is that while pregnenolone orally and transdermally is useless for increasing androgens (proven in studies), pregnenolone applied directly to the testicle area is not useless because pregnenolone's metabolism to androgens happens only locally in the testicles and oral consumption or transdermal application (elsewhere) does not cause pregnenolone to circulate to the testicles in any significant amount.

 

My second hypothesis is that since vitamin B5 increases activity of the 5 alpha reductase enzyme, which metabolizes testosterone to other androgens, application of vitamin B5 to the testicle area can increase testosterone metabolites.

 

My third hypothesis is relevant to phosphatidylserine (only from animal brain, soy source doesn't work) and increasing 5 alpha reductase in testicles (some rat study) but I don't have it at hand, I will soon buy it and test it perhaps.

 

Just 30 minutes ago I took a 500mg vitamin B5 and 10mg pregnenolone capsules (with fillers) and added it to a small dmso solution. I marinated my testicles in the solution until no liquid or powder was left in the jar and here's what I noticed:

1. Immediately I felt a need to urinate.

2. Reddening and itching of my sac.

3. Usual disgusting garlic taste in mouth.

4. PERHAPS, MAYBE a tiny sedative effect. I am not sure so don't take it for anything.

 

I cannot feel that I have taken pregnenolone or b5, although oddly most other supplements I mix with dmso do produce their usual brain effects immediately.

Advertising Framework

by @ LongeCity - Articles

Visitors to the forum will notice that a lot of discussion evolves around nutrition, supplements and lifestyle. We realize of course that these factors are just one element of the larger mission to conquer the blight of involuntary death, but that makes it all the more important to make sure that the strengths that LongeCity has in providing a great resource for nutritional information exchange are leveraged effectively. 

Sometimes, it may seem like there are two 'factions' at LongeCity: on the one hand the committed 'activists' who realize the truth that nutritional supplements by themselves will have very limited efficacy in extending the human lifespan and who consequently have little patience  for 'supplement pushers'. On the other hand there are the 'supplementers' who have little to no interest in 'living forever' and whose priority is a healthy lifespan and enhancing their fitness. For sure, examples of both 'camps' can be found if one looks for them, but on the whole the distinction has very little merit: firstly, nutrition, drugs, vitamins and lifestyle - even apparently peripheral topics like cognitive enhancement, are an important factor in the portfolio of life extension technologies. These are the factors that we can do for ourselves, today and for that reasons alone are worth discussing. 

This fact- that supplements are at the 'applied' end of life extension discussion also means that the information and expertise joining at LongeCity around supplements can be much more effectively leveraged for fundraising. This makes LongeCity pretty unique: we are trying to siphon some of the financial overheads from the commercial end of life extension and re-allocate them to chronically underfunded scientific research and advocacy programmes. LongeCity has been really successful in this regard: with very little funding we have made a real difference in creating pioneering information material and funding important basic research as well as supporting community projects. 

Thus 'activists' can appreciate a measure of advertising at the sitefor making an important contribution to the common cause. Ad exposure for Members is reduced but not fully eliminated not least because we think that some ads can actually be useful and interesting. There are at least four types of  advertising available: 

'Google ads' - are context-related ads. Google offers these individually based on your browser's settings and the content of the forum. Consequently please bear in mind that LongeCity has very limited control about what ads are displayed.

'Banner ads' - these paid for adverts usually leading to a sponsors website. More about LongeCity's relationship with other institutions can be found in this article. To quote: "LongeCity does not endorse any advertisers beyond the fact that they have made a donation to the community in exchange for exposure. Advertisers never influence our policy, ever. (...) Having said that, advertisers featured at LongeCity very often have a real commitment to the cause- they would not have found us otherwise". Members are invited to comment on the policy

'Links' - these are links in text and elsewhere that are monetized if the link is used to make a purchase at the external site. One well known example is Amazon.com: If you use the LongeCity 'referral' page to make a purchase, Amazon makes a small payment to LongeCity at no cost to you. We may be experimenting with other link concepts in the future. Note however, that the connections on our links page are not used in this manner. They are simply a project index interesting sources that all members can contribute to. 

'Ads by discussion' - sometimes advertising momentum is generated simply by discussing a particular product. Over the years, marketers have become very sophisticated in pursuing such 'viral' strategies - and they are generally NOT WELCOME at LongeCity. There are only two sub-forums where product-and vendor related discussions are tolerated: for supplement companies/ for other companies. Any attempts to initiate product-related discussions elsewhere will be considered a breach of the LongeCity user agreement. The limited discussion that is allowed in this context is tolerated only because we feel that some information exchange about products and providers is potentially part of the LongeCity mission. Where this link cannot be made clearly, ads by discussion -whether inadvertent or not- will not be permitted.

We have experimented a little bit and are always keen to find other ways to generate funding for life extension research and advocacy from the LongeCity website in a way that is not overly intrusive and that does not compromise our mission and values. 
Potential sponsors are invited to get in touch. 
Members with new ideas about are invited to share them in the suggestions forum

Coming This Week – Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room eBook!

by Lauren Hill @ Mama's Laundry Talk

I have been a busy bee creating my very first (of several) Laundry eBooks this week! Introducing the first eBook in the Let’s Talk Laundry series – Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room! If your Laundry Room is a disaster and you just don’t know where to start, this is the guide for you. You’ll find […]

The post Coming This Week – Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room eBook! appeared first on Mama's Laundry Talk.

Enhance Your Beauty With The 5 Best SK-II Beauty Products Of 2017 – Detailed Product Review!

by anchaltailor @ Review168

Most women love experimenting with skin care product, and they keep on searching what works best for their skin to look young. Those who are interested in makeup when a walk into the cosmetic store is like walking to Disneyland. By seeing a variety of products, women feel excited. They will be ready to spend[Read More]

The post Enhance Your Beauty With The 5 Best SK-II Beauty Products Of 2017 – Detailed Product Review! appeared first on Review168.

Lots of Updates, Featuring Some (Surprise!) Book News & Giveaways Galore

by Kerry @ Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog

Between working (on work) and hustling together some exciting book launch events (which are going to kick ass and I can’t wait to tell you about them), I’m not sleeping much these days. BUT. I’ve also been working on some kick-ass blog posts about beauty oils and body care routines!  In fact, I was hoping to post them […]

The post Lots of Updates, Featuring Some (Surprise!) Book News & Giveaways Galore appeared first on Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog.

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Is glycation from exogenous ribose supplementation an issue?

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Life extension published this article on ribose, which seems to refute the concern about glycation (over and above other carbs) please debate.

From : http://www.lifeextension.com/Magazine/2012/10/Restoring-Cellular-Energy-Metabolism/Page-02

"Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome are conditions that often occur together and are believed to have a similar underlying cause.28

There's accumulating evidence that defective production of ATP is the culprit.28-30 These findings make d-ribose a natural candidate as a therapy for those suffering from fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. A published case study showed that a woman with fibromyalgia experienced a decrease in symptoms following supplementation with d-ribose.31 The patient had been unresponsive to prior medications, and her physicians based their decision on the known energy-enhancing capabilities of d-ribose.

A larger study soon followed enlisting 41 patients with fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome.28 Subjects took 5 grams of d-ribose three times daily until they reached a total of 280 grams.

There was significant improvement in all five categories on a standard score: energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain intensity, and well-being.28 On average, patients reported a 45% increase in energy levels.

While fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome remain complicated and perplexing to scientists, these findings offer real hope for a solution.

Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder that affects as many as 15% of the US population, and it is severe enough to warrant medical treatment in more than a third of those people.32,33

The condition involves an uncontrollable urge to move the legs, accompanied by uncomfortable sensations, and it is usually worse at night.33 Only a few medications offer even partial relief of restless leg syndrome, and many make the condition worse—leaving sufferers without much recourse.32,33

Disordered energy metabolism has been suggested as one possible cause of restless leg syndrome. Low levels of adenosine, the d-ribose-containing central molecule in ATP, have been reported in those suffering from restless leg syndrome.34

Based on that observation, one study has been carried out in which daytime symptoms were eliminated, and nighttime symptoms significantly reduced, on daily doses of 15 grams of d-ribose, taken as one 5-gram dose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner.26

It's clearly too early to claim that d-ribose cures the condition, but these encouraging findings—coupled with complete absence of side effects—warrant further investigation.

UNGROUNDED FEAR: CAN D-RIBOSE CAUSE GLYCATION REACTIONS?
It is now generally accepted that d-ribose supplementation provides many health benefits, particularly in the area of cellular energy management.

Several recent publications, however, have raised the question of whether d-ribose—because it is a sugar—could possibly contribute to development of harmful advanced glycation endproducts.40-43

The truth seems to be straightforward: Like any sugar, ribose can indeed cause protein glycation, with resulting damage to tissues.42 And when ribose is administered experimentally at the same high dose as glucose, ribose quickly causes the protein cross-linking that is the outcome of glycation.40

But those studies used artificially high doses and concentrations of ribose, levels never found in humans—even after high-dose supplementation.

For example, in a human study of d-ribose supplementation at doses of 20 and 53 grams over a 4-hour period, peak serum ribose levels rose to only 4.8 mg/dL and 81.7 mg/dL, respectively.44

But doses used in the glycation experiments were significantly higher, up to 30 times higher than achievable in human blood!42,43

And in an experiment showing that d-ribose induced glycation and impaired spatial cognition in mice, the ribose concentrations used were equivalent to blood levels of 150 to 750 mg/dL, clearly vastly higher than have been used in human studies.43,44

Researchers seeking to show that ribose-induced glycation could enhance cartilage damage in an animal model of osteoarthritis showed conclusively that even direct injection of ribose into the joint was incapable of triggering sufficient glycation to cause injury!45,46

The doses for d-ribose studies reported in this article—15 to 60 grams per day in divided doses—are incapable of causing serum ribose concentrations high enough to get anywhere near the risk of excessive glycation reported in the lab studies.44

Also, most human studies recommended splitting the total amount into three daily doses; this approach provides even greater assurance that serum d-ribose remains well within safe levels.

Kidney Protection
Like the brain and heart, the human kidney receives a a high proportion of the body's total blood flow—which makes it equally vulnerable to damage by ischemia-reperfusion mechanisms, the loss and restoration of blood flow.

These kidney injuries can occur as the result of trauma or during any major surgery, sometimes worsened by chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.35-37

Growing evidence suggests that an immune activation and inflammatory response following this kind of kidney injury creates the bulk of the damage, especially in those with diabetes.12,38 Adenosine, which is partly made from d-ribose, is an important regulator of kidney function, and is especially vital during times of injury.39 These observations—coupled with what we know about d-ribose as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory—have aroused considerable interest among kidney researchers.

Japanese scientists have led the way in investigating d-ribose as a kidney protector. They have found that in rats subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion—similar to what can occur during major surgery—d-ribose significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines.12 Kidney function and appearance following the injury was improved substantially.

They also showed that d-ribose reduces activation of neutrophils, the ubiquitous white blood cells that are the first to arrive at the scene of an injury but that also release toxic chemicals and oxygen radicals that can cause additional harm.11

Clearly researchers are only beginning to realize the substantial potential of d-ribose for kidney health.

Summary
D-ribose is an essential component in our bodies' cellular energy management systems. Additionally, it provides antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and gene regulatory capabilities. Together these characteristics make it of compelling interest to forward-thinking clinicians and patients.

Supplemental d-ribose demonstrates cardioprotection—even late in the disease process when heart attacks have already occurred, and when heart failure is developing. D-ribose helps ailing heart muscle maximize its effort, and improves blood flow to oxygen-starved cardiac tissue.

D-ribose supplements are only just being explored for similar benefits in brain and kidney tissues, but recent studies offer great hope in those areas. Even perplexing conditions such as fibromyalgia and restless leg syndrome seem to be yielding to the energy-related benefits of d-ribose. •


References
1. Miyoshi N, Oubrahim H, Chock PB, Stadtman ER. Age-dependent cell death and the role of ATP in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Feb 7;103(6):1727-31. Epub 2006 Jan 27.

2. Kohlhaas M, Maack C. Interplay of defective excitation-contraction coupling, energy starvation, and oxidative stress in heart failure. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2011 Apr;21(3):69-73.

3. Available at: http://naturalmedicinejournal.net/pdf/NMJ_FEB10_NP.pdf. Accessed July 23, 2012.

4. Barsotti C, Ipata PL. Pathways for alpha-D-ribose utilization for nucleobase salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 15;63(2):117-22.

5. Omran H, McCarter D, St Cyr J, Luderitz B. D-ribose aids congestive heart failure patients. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2004 Summer;9(2):117-8.

6. Perlmutter NS, Wilson RA, Angello DA, Palac RT, Lin J, Brown BG. Ribose facilitates thallium-201 redistribution in patients with coronary artery disease. J Nucl Med. 1991 Feb;32(2):193-200.

7. Seifert JG, Subudhi AW, Fu MX, et al. The role of ribose on oxidative stress during hypoxic exercise: a pilot study. J Med Food. 2009 Jun;12(3):690-3.

8. Freeman ML, Mertens-Talcott SU, St Cyr J, Percival SS. Ribose enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Nutr Res. 2008 Nov;28(11):775-82.

9. Ferrari R, Pepi P, Ferrari F, Nesta F, Benigno M, Visioli O. Metabolic derangement in ischemic heart disease and its therapeutic control. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Sep 3;82(5A):2K-13K.

10. Ferrari R, Pepi P, Ferrari F, Nesta F, Benigno M, Visioli O. Metabolic derangement in ischemic heart disease and its therapeutic control. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Sep 3;82(5A):2K-13K.

11. Sato H, Ueki M, Asaga T, Chujo K, Maekawa N. D-ribose attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury by reducing neutrophil activation in rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009 May;218(1):35-40.

12. Nishiyama J, Ueki M, Asaga T, Chujo K, Maekawa N. Protective action of D-ribose against renal injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion in rats with transient hyperglycemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009 Nov;219(3):215-22.

13. Pauly DF, Pepine CJ. D-Ribose as a supplement for cardiac energy metabolism. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Oct;5(4):249-58.

14. Pliml W, von Arnim T, Stablein A, Hofmann H, Zimmer HG, Erdmann E. Effects of ribose on exercise-induced ischaemia in stable coronary artery disease. Lancet. 1992 Aug 29;340(8818): 507-10.

15. Kendler BS. Supplemental conditionally essential nutrients in cardiovascular disease therapy. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):9-16.

16. Sinatra ST. Metabolic cardiology: an integrative strategy in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 May-Jun;15(3):44-52.

17. Lopaschuk GD. Treating ischemic heart disease by pharmacologically improving cardiac energy metabolism. Presse Med. 1998 Dec 12;27(39):2100-4.

18. Pauly DF, Johnson C, St Cyr JA. The benefits of ribose in cardiovascular disease. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Feb;60(2):149-51.

19. Sinatra ST. Metabolic cardiology: the missing link in cardiovascular disease. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;15(2):48-50.

20. Hegewald MG, Palac RT, Angello DA, Perlmutter NS, Wilson RA. Ribose infusion accelerates thallium redistribution with early imaging compared with late 24-hour imaging without ribose. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Dec;18(7):1671-81.

21. Omran H, Illien S, MacCarter D, St Cyr J, Luderitz B. D-Ribose improves diastolic function and quality of life in congestive heart failure patients: a prospective feasibility study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2003 Oct;5(5):615-9.

22. Omran H, McCarter D, St Cyr J, Luderitz B. D-ribose aids congestive heart failure patients. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2004 Summer;9(2):117-8.

23. Schneider HJ, Rossner S, Pfeiffer D, Hagendorff A. D-ribose improves cardiac contractility and hemodynamics, and reduces expression of c-fos in the hippocampus during sustained slow ventricular tachycardia in rats. Int J Cardiol. 2008 Mar 28;125(1):49-56.

24. Sawada SG, Lewis S, Kovacs R, et al. Evaluation of the anti-ischemic effects of D-ribose during dobutamine stress echocardiography: a pilot study. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2009;7:5.

25. MacCarter D, Vijay N, Washam M, Shecterle L, Sierminski H, St Cyr JA. D-ribose aids advanced ischemic heart failure patients. Int J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 11;137(1):79-80.

26. Chigrinskiy EA, Conway VD. Protective effect of D-ribose against inhibition of rats testes function at excessive exercise. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistr. 2011;7(3):242-9.

27. Barsotti C, Ipata PL. Pathways for alpha-D-ribose utilization for nucleobase salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 15;63(2):117-22.

28. Teitelbaum JE, Johnson C, St Cyr J. The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62.

29. Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Ayavou T. Glycolysis abnormalities in fibromyalgia. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Apr;13(2):144-8.

30. Le Goff P. Is fibromyalgia a muscle disorder? Joint Bone Spine. 2006 May;73(3):239-42.

31. Gebhart B, Jorgenson JA. Benefit of ribose in a patient with fibromyalgia. Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Nov;24(11):1646-8.

32. Martin CM. The mysteries of restless legs syndrome. Consult Pharm. 2007 Nov;22(11):907-24.

33. Bayard M, Avonda T, Wadzinski J. Restless legs syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Jul 15;78(2):235-40.

34. Guieu R, Sampieri F, Pouget J, Guy B, Rochat H. Adenosine in painful legs and moving toes syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1994 Oct;17(5):460-9.

35. Laisalmi-Kokki M, Pesonen E, Kokki H, et al. Potentially detrimental effects of N-acetylcysteine on renal function in knee arthroplasty. Free Radic Res. 2009 Jul;43(7):691-6.

36. Siems W, Quast S, Carluccio F, et al. Oxidative stress in chronic renal failure as a cardiovascular risk factor. Clin Nephrol. 2002 Jul;58 Suppl 1:S12-9.

37. Yan SF, Ramasamy R, Schmidt AM. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and cardiovascular disease. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009;11:e9.

38. Jang HR, Ko GJ, Wasowska BA, Rabb H. The interaction between ischemia-reperfusion and immune responses in the kidney. J Mol Med. 2009 Sep;87(9):859-64.

39. Vallon V, Osswald H. Adenosine receptors and the kidney. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009 (193):443-70.

40. Mentink CJ, Hendriks M, Levels AA, Wolffenbuttel BH. Glucose-mediated cross-linking of collagen in rat tendon and skin. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Jul;321(1-2):69-76.

41. Kuo TY, Huang CL, Yang JM, et al. The role of ribosylated-BSA in regulating PC12 cell viability. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2012 Aug;28(4): 255-67.

42. Wei Y, Han CS, Zhou J, Liu Y, Chen L, He RQ. d-ribose in glycation and protein aggregation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Apr;1820(4):488-94.

43. Han C, Lu Y, Wei Y, Liu Y, He R. D-ribose induces cellular protein glycation and impairs mouse spatial cognition. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24623.

44. Gross M, Zollner N. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide during long-term D-ribose administration in man. Klin Wochenschr. 1991 Jan 4;69(1):31-6.

45. Vos PA, Degroot J, Barten-van Rijbroek AD, et al. Elevation of cartilage AGEs does not accelerate initiation of canine experimental osteoarthritis upon mild surgical damage. J Orthop Res. 2012 Mar 2.

46. Willett TL, Kandel R, De Croos JN, Avery NC, Grynpas MD. Enhanced levels of non-enzymatic glycation and pentosidine crosslinking in spontaneous osteoarthritis progression. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Jul;20(7):736-44."

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Blossom Jeju Pink Camellia Essence Serum

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

It’s been a while, hasn’t it? Amidst the hustle that is work and some pretty major life changes, I’ve got a massive backlog of products I’m dying to talk about – some I love, others I don’t, and even more riffraff that just weren’t my thing ~  such as the Blossom Jeju Pink Camellia Essence Serum. […]

The post Blossom Jeju Pink Camellia Essence Serum appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

caliban's Blog - Shalots

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

Shalot” = a made-up word for a type of person active in life extension, cryonics, artificial intelligence and related fields. Sometimes encountered on LongeCity.

 

The word is a constriction of ‘zealot’ and ‘shallow’ and also a reference to Tennyson’s poem ‘the Lady of Shalott’ (2x’t’) as someone who is removed from the real world, obsessed with images and appearances and likely to disappear suddenly and pointlessly.
“Shallot” (2x’l’) Is a word for a type of onion. A bland yet pungent vegetable that can make you cry when you work with it…

 

Characteristics of a shalot:

 

1) Shalots know little about the history of science and technology, let alone in life-extension. They fail to appreciate how much they risk repeating the past, and moreover, how much they themselves are –hopefully unwittingly– playing the part of a peddler of hype and false promises in the footsteps of hundreds who have come before. Instead, they are usually convinced that it’s all new and unheard of –including their own schemes and fancies.

 

2) Shalots don’t understand a lot about science. Most of the time they obfuscate this fact, sometimes they are quite upfront, even aggressive about it. They make a distinction between scientists as people who do the grunt work and people like themselves who are ‘organisers’. They understand even less about medicine.

 

3) They are interested in media buzz and talk a lot about ‘mass movements’ and ‘marketing’ about ‘policy’ – but usually fail to demonstrate where these factors have ever been truly relevant in producing tangible scientific advances.

 

4) Shalots often lament that different activities are not well-coordinated enough and paint a picture where global innovation would function much more efficiently if only someone would be in charge to co-ordinate.

 

5) They are usually not very successful in their professional life but are fairly sure that they were born to greatness. Even worse, if they have been successful once, they are now convinced that they have all the answers.

 

6) When a shalot accepts a specific, useful, or even important task they often under-perform… which should come as a surprise because the things that they really wanted to do would have been much more demanding.

 

7) Shalots tacitly assume Life Extension is a kind of ‘pill’ – something that will be invented at some stage and then solve all medical issues associated with aging in one go. They therefore talk about things like “before and after” and “until”. Some shalots declare that they realise it is more complicated than that, but their attitudes don’t suggest this is true.

 

8) They come onto the scene with a splash, a rush of activity. Sometimes that is very welcome because you can’t or don’t want to identify them as a shalot straight away. Sometimes, it is clear to most who have been there before that shalot shenanigans are in evidence, but not giving them a minimum of time would look bad and –who knows?– maybe, just maybe, the shalot can make a useful contribution before wandering of. And they will disappear after a while. Sometimes they get a job or a girlfriend.

 

You can tell that my own studies about shalots are as frustrating as they often purport themselves to be. I try to avoid them. Nonetheless I might return to this polemic with more observations as my experience may regrettably inspire.
This is a private rant, in no way related to anything I do at LongeCity or elsewhere.

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Lee Ji Ham LJH Tea Tree Range

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

This post has been a long time coming. The first time I mentioned the LJH Tea Tree Essence, it was in my routine post last September, and I was already on my second bottle. Almost a year later, I’ve gone through countless bottles and repurchases – so I guess this is a HG for me. […]

The post Lee Ji Ham LJH Tea Tree Range appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Review: Sofina Beauté UV Cut Emulsion NS SPF50 PA++++ (Fresh)

by Kerry @ Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog

It’s not a secret that I enjoy splurging on pricy skincare products – luxury skincare is one of my absolute favorite ways to treat myself. But sunscreen, which is the product I consider to be the most important product in my daytime skincare routine, is one product I actually don’t splurge on. To a non-regular-sunscreen-wearer, […]

The post Review: Sofina Beauté UV Cut Emulsion NS SPF50 PA++++ (Fresh) appeared first on Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog.

Top 10 Skincare Products For 2016

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

I wanted to post this up before the year ended, but got too busy packing for my Japan trip. This is a round up of my top 10 skincare products for 2016 – most of which are my Holy Grail items that I use every day. Check out my top 10 makeup products for 2016 […]

The post Top 10 Skincare Products For 2016 appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

It’s Here! Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room eBook

by Lauren Hill @ Mama's Laundry Talk

Friends, I am so thrilled to announce that the first laundry eBook in the Let’s Talk Laundry series is finally published! Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room is a guide that can help you get your Laundry Room out of survival mode.  I’ve been there, done that and have several tips to share with you! This […]

The post It’s Here! Spring Cleaning: The Laundry Room eBook appeared first on Mama's Laundry Talk.

Anyone With MAO-A +/+ Taking MAO-I? Why?

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Trying to make sense of something here. I have MAO-A +/+ which is the low-functioning MAO enzyme. 

 

I am wondering whether inhibiting MAO-B would help boost MAO-A? If so, then it could be beneficial to take Deprenyl. Has anyone tried this or is taking a MAO inhibitor despite being MAO-A ++ 

 

I am most likely affected by autism and have recently found Raspen-A - this seems like a bogus MAO enhancer to me but I have read MAO enzymes mostly need Mg, B2, Iron to work properly. 

Asian Sunscreen Showdown: Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence vs Shiseido Senka Mineral Perfect UV Gel - Lab Muffin Beauty Science

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This is part of a continuing series on sunscreens. The first installment with two physical sunscreens is here. One of my biggest issues with sunscreen is t

My Favourite Japanese Sunscreens - Beautyholics Anonymous

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© narstudio What’s the most important item in your skincare routine? Eye cream? Serum? Moisturiser? For me, it isn’t any of these. It’s sunscreen. I didn’t start wearing sunscreen regularly until I was in my early twenties. I know I should have started a lot earlier but when the only sunscreens I could get were …

7 Ways to Stay Cool & Prevent Heat Stroke Symptoms

by Christine Babcock @ Dr. Axe

Heat stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when the body can no longer cool itself. The body suffers from dehydration  because it can’t release internal heat into the environment, resulting in core temperatures of over 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The scary part is that most people aren’t aware that they are in danger of heat stroke —... Read more »

How to clean your brushes ft. Benjabelle Brush Tree

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

Cleaning my makeup brushes has always been a major pain point for me, and as such I don’t do it as often as I should. My recent attempt at getting a gadget – the StylPro brush cleaner – to do it for me backfired big time, but it also help me realise one thing. I […]

The post How to clean your brushes ft. Benjabelle Brush Tree appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Dyslipidemia Causes + 5 Tips to Manage It Naturally

by Jillian Babcock @ Dr. Axe

Dyslipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by changes in plasma lipids or lipoproteins, including two we are familiar with: cholesterol and triglycerides. The goal for adults over 20 years old is to have cholesterol levels that are below 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). However, nearly 99 million Americans are estimated to have total blood cholesterol... Read more »

Review: The New 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50+ PA++++!!!!

Review: The New 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence SPF 50+ PA++++!!!!


Fifty Shades of Snail

Guys, I have an announcement. I’m engaged! Yes, that’s right. The new 2015 Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence sunscreen and I plan to elope soon. We will make our lifelong commit to each…

LOreal Cleansing Balm

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

I dread washing my hair. Absolutely hate it. While I can slather on 10 different face products with my eyes closed and endless yawning, there’s just something about lathering and conditioning and drying (oh god, the drying) of my long hair that bugs me. It was the Sunday evening of my daily routine…Until I discovered […]

The post LOreal Cleansing Balm appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Anyone With MAO-A +/+ Taking MAO-I? Why?

by @ Health

Trying to make sense of something here. I have MAO-A +/+ which is the low-functioning MAO enzyme. 

 

I am wondering whether inhibiting MAO-B would help boost MAO-A? If so, then it could be beneficial to take Deprenyl. Has anyone tried this or is taking a MAO inhibitor despite being MAO-A ++ 

 

I am most likely affected by autism and have recently found Raspen-A - this seems like a bogus MAO enhancer to me but I have read MAO enzymes mostly need Mg, B2, Iron to work properly. 

2015 Korean Skincare Trends, New Releases, and the Future of K-Beauty with Alice of W2Beauty

by Kerry @ Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog

The second most popular request I had while I was away was a new seasonal interview with Alice, lifelong resident of Seoul and owner of the Korean beauty e-tailer, W2Beauty. I catch up with Alice a couple of times a year to talk about new releases and ingredient trends in the K-beauty world, and today […]

The post 2015 Korean Skincare Trends, New Releases, and the Future of K-Beauty with Alice of W2Beauty appeared first on Skin & Tonics : A Skincare Blog.

Adjusting Neutrophil Behavior to Enhance Stroke Recovery

by @ LongeCityNews

An emerging theme in regenerative research is the importance of the innate immune system to the mechanisms of tissue maintenance, and researchers have so far found a number of ways in which the behavior of these immune cells might potentially be adjusted in order to enhance healing. The scientific community has made initial strides with macrophages and microglia, shifting the balance of pro-inflammatory versus pro-regenerative cells, and here some of the same high level themes are observed in the response to injury of the innate immune cells known as neutrophils. It matters greatly as to whether these immune cells turn up at the point of injury in the mode of defending against intruding pathogens, or in the mode of assisting with repair; they are capable of both, but individual cells tend to be focused only on one of these at a given time.

White blood cells called neutrophils are like soldiers in your body that form in the bone marrow and at the first sign of microbial attack, head for the site of injury just as fast as they can to neutralize invading bacteria or fungi using an armament of chemical weapons. But when that injury is an intracerebral hemorrhage, which releases blood into the brain, neutrophils arrive at the point of battle only to discover that there's no infection to attack. Unless immediately removed from the brain by other immune cells, they actually cause damage and deploy an array of toxic chemicals into the brain that worsen injury.

Now researchers have discovered a way to temporarily suppress these soldiers' pro-killing effect and turn them into beneficial weapons that scavenge for toxins, potentially opening a door for a therapeutic approach to hemorrhagic stroke treatment. A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when an artery inside the brain leaks or ruptures. It is the second-most common form of stroke after ischemic stroke, has a 30 to 67 percent mortality rate and is the main cause of disabilities among adults. Because half of hemorrhagic stroke victims die within the first two days, researchers believe that deadly secondary damage, including through toxicity of iron from the breakdown of red blood cells, leads to an excess in free radicals and inflammation.

Along with carrying chemicals that could aggravate injury, neutrophils produce and release potentially beneficial molecules including lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein. At the same time the neutrophils are getting ready to attack inside the brain, the brain and spleen are releasing interleukin-27 molecules, which can signal to the neutrophils to produce more lactoferrin and thus benefit the brain as it recovers from the stroke injury. "This is one of the first discoveries showing that you can train neutrophils to act as friendly cells. We've adapted how the body already responds naturally, but it can take 12 to 18 hours for the signal to turn them from damaging neutrophils to the beneficial cells that release lactoferrin and by then, it can be too late. Treatment with lactoferrin in our models is effective in reducing brain damage after hemorrhage and we are working on a modified form of lactoferrin that could penetrate the brain better and quicker."

Link: https://www.uth.edu/media/story.htm?id=caf2ac24-bf5a-433e-aa00-e0d22ba0209b


View the full article at FightAging

LongeCity and others

by @ LongeCity - Articles

A) Background


LongeCity's origins lie with a personal website: On his private page where he chronicled his engagement with life extension, Bruce Klein also maintained a private bulleting board 'home for immortals'. Soon, visitors reached a critical mass.

And then it happened: Rather than staying at that level, we transcended it together. Bruce agreed to give up his control for something greater: the 'Immortality Institute' was founded as a members-based organisation.

 

This 'big tent' approach stood the test of time: Protagonists came and went, the original founders passed on the torch. The organisation endured, because it was no longer any individuals private agenda, it became an idea, a mission, and a community. We have left the days of the founding behind. We even changed our name, but, as an acknowledgement to this first, bold step into a unique community, LongeCity still refers to its internal Members section as the 'Immortality Institute' and remains open to Members from across the globe.


Also, until this day, our history shapes how we look at working with others: we celebrate the fantastic potential that lies in each person's own initiative and seek to empower individuals to pursue exactly those projects they feel passionate about, but we also try to link, to integrate, to join together and to collaborate in a broader context for maximum effect.

 


B) Private Individuals and their efforts/websites


There are many of personal websites around of the type Bruce started with. Some are just one person's way of discovering a new field, others grow into great resources or global benefit.
The great thing about them is the freedom they give you as the author to manage them largely as you please. Downsides exist: personal websites often have limited circulation beyond a particular social sphere or topic, missing chances for cross-pollination. A lot of energy is spent on re-inventing the wheel many times over, while it could be more productively channelled into improving what is already there. Mainly, they are fickle things, and anyone with internet experience learns not to trust them remaining as they often grind to a halt or disappear as the sole author/owner gets engaged in other priorities.

 

So on balance, LongeCity aims to make it easy for people to contribute directly to a larger pool. Members can have their own webspace or blogs or fora or linklists etc. without needing to home brew. If they want control, they can have as much as possible as long as it doesn't clash with others. (1)

On the other hand, some people only tap their full potential if they feel a project is fully and entirely their own.
IF that aspect is important to you, then please, by all means, do your own thing! We would much rather let a thousand flowers bloom than no growth at all. For maximum benefit, maybe you could still cross-reference to LongeCity?  (2)


C) Other initiatives and Organisations  


Now, this is a slightly more complicated topic.(3)

LongeCity understands itself as part of a movement. As usual in any movement, there are different preferences, protagonists, perspectives, powers and priorities. On the one hand, there is a real opportunity cost associated with not combining forces. It is sometimes very difficult to wish people good luck in setting up their own initiatives when, very clearly, their creative and financial resources could be much more effectively leveraged by using existing links and mechanisms.


On the other hand, different approaches and competition are absolutely essential to ensure that as many paths for success as possible are being pursued. LongeCity does not exist for its own sake. If it was not clear that we can make a unique contribution to the greater cause, we would close down and direct everyone to other initiatives. We need to be clear about what contribution we are making, when others are doing a better job and also when we are duplicating or being duplicated and why.

 

To all similar initiatives out there: If it looks like we are doing something very similar, please lets discuss if there are ways to generate greater synergies. This may simply mean that we stay in touch, it could mean collaboration on specific projects or it might go as far that LongeCity stops doing something and leaves it to you. OR you might decide to do what you are doing as part of LongeCity.

Two things in particular, we would much prefer to collaborate on:
1) if you are doing anything that involves a forum, we would be thrilled if you could do that at LongeCity. Over the years we have seen so many forums come and go, that we really think it a great shame to reinvent the wheel time and again. We'd gladly give you all the support and 'moderation' powers to run your own forum section at LongeCity, and a suite of powerful IT tools together with a great deal of experience as well.

2) if you are blogging or writing regular articles on life extension. Again, it is a great shame to see so many fantastic contributions swept away in the winds of time, whereas they could have been archived at LongeCity. We can easily supply you with all the tools and support, in fact we might even be able to pay you a little bit of money for your efforts - and the copyright still stays with you!

In summary, we have a mission, but not a specific 'line'. Instead we want to be a 'city'- a place where people come together. A place where different 'homes' exist fruitfully together, an umbrella group and a forum for exchange.
We would like to be a 'one-stop' info point for life extension on the web, from which people can move on to pick exactly those aspects or initiatives -at LongeCity or elsewhere- that they like. Any fellow initiatives out there, please get in touch to help make that vision a reality from which everyone benefits.

 


D) Advertisers at LongeCity 


This is a slightly different topic. Anyone who visits LongeCity will not fail to notice that it attracts the attention of people who do not care much about our mission. Some come to debate, many to learn about nutrition (but not with an ultimate interest in life extension), some try to make money. To be quite frank, part of LongeCity's particular approach is to try to extract funds from these dynamics in order to re-allocate them towards the common mission. In this context, we sometimes partner with advertisers. Now, we do in fact discuss each advertiser internally and have rejected quite a few as not something we would affiliate with. However, at the end of the day the imperative is to raise money for a cause that we consider of life-saving importance. In that context we do not necessarily choose advertisers based on their own, (or their products) life-extension credentials. LongeCity does not endorse any advertisers beyond the fact that they have made a donation to the community in exchange for exposure. Advertisers never influence our policy, ever. Advertisers get banners (please click on them) -- thats it.
Having said that, advertisers featured at LongeCity very often have a real commitment to the cause- they would not have found us otherwise. When we say something nice about an advertiser, then that is NOT something they paid for but a genuine observation regarding their conduct and contribution to the cause.

 


E) Members representing LongeCity?

 

Membership of LongeCity is a strange thing: On the one hand, its a strictly in-or-out affair. On the other, Membership is just one way (and perhaps not a good one) to differentiate the 'talkers' from the 'doers'. If you are clearly a 'doer' we would probably consider you a Member of the life extension community whether you have joined the Immortality Institute or not. One way of simulating that is to give people 'points' for activities in connection with LongeCity. If you get enough points, Membership is free. Anyone who wants to join LongeCity but can't afford the (very modest) Membership donation, please get in touch, we have never denied membership to a committed peer based on inability to pay.
LongeCity is an open place. Membership as such does not entail 'vetting'.(4)

We hope that our Members conduct themselves in an exemplary manner that reflects well on the broader community at all times. But clearly, this is not always on the cards, not least because we are deliberately opening our doors to a diverse range of backgrounds and perspectives. Thus, whether someone is a Member does not mean that this person is in any way representative of our Membership or can speak on behalf of the organisation.

What about leadership? The case is not too different. Really, the only requirement to move into a leadership position at LongeCity is some tangible commitment. We don't vet people apart from a very basic appointment review and a requirement to sign the leadership agreement. Directors and certain key officers are asked for ID, but that's about it. Now, leaders *are* expected to behave in certain ways when representing LongeCity. Clearly, they owe as much to the Membership and community. But when not wearing the LongeCity hat, leaders are free to express their views and pursue their activities as they please and without any review by LongeCity. Some leaders may have gone on to do some strange things in their lives – LongeCity does not pry into a persons private affairs, successes or failures, ventures or missteps as long as it does not affect or organisation, community and mission.
If there is uncertainty whether a LongeCity leader is doing something in an official capacity, the fault is with us for allowing this ambiguity to prevail- please let us know and we'll make sure to clarify the situation.

 


F) CONCLUSION

 

The above are observations that I make from the Chair... but with the proviso that this perspective and policy might well change as time moves on – as you have seen from our history LongeCity is certainly able to evolve!
I hope the above is useful as a reference point regarding how LongeCity relates to 'others'. I also hope it has become clear that we really don't see a lot of 'others'. Anyone who shares our mission is 'one of us'. People interested in life extension are often individualists -- and any talk of a 'community' will need to take this into account. But mindful of this fact, as gently and effectively as possible, LongeCity aspires to provide a hospitable 'home' for a community, for diverse communitIES and lone travellers alike.  

 

 

 

Footnotes:

 

(1) A good example of such a compromise are forum threads: A new discussion is initiated by a 'threadstarter'. A certain amount of responsibility comes with selecting a good topic, framing it well, giving it a good exposition. It can be frustrating if people spoil 'your' thread with inappropriate remarks. On your own website, you could just remove comments at will. On LongeCity, Members can ask to become Moderators of their own threads. It should be made clear in the first post if that option is used, so that other contributors are aware of this.

 

(2) For example, did you know that you can maintain a blog externally, AND a 'mirror' blog at LongeCity? Every post you make in your own blog can be automatically imported into your LongeCity blog. Ask if you need help setting this up.

 

(3) A reference to the 'Life of Brian' may help to set the scheme in a humorous way:

 

(4) There are some conditions of membership --they are listed in our bylaws, and I shan't go into them here, but suffice it to say that it is not very difficult to join. Very few Members have ever been expelled and where that happened it was based on activities that were directly in connection with activities on the site. While Members might sometimes be rebuked or even banned from posting on our public forums, even that does not entail automatic removal of Membership.    

 

 

Opinions on Weight Loss - Could policy revisions lead to a healthier nation?

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

So, I was reading this over at the FDA and it dawned on me that these safety side effects were only likely to occur in people who are aged. In young people, it would very likely not be an issue. So here's the bigger issue:

 

If you take these away from young people or dissuade them from using them altogether, the young people will lose the opportunity to be healthy. Could it be policies like these that are fattening up America while Japan enjoys the slimmest healthiest lifestyle the world over?

 

Instead, I propose that we put age limits on supplements like these. We have minimum ages for alcohol and tobacco, so why not require carding for maximum ages and put in place a system to allow regulatory authorities to print a max age code on retail boxes and bottles. This of course leaves the looming problem of agism still at play and these regulations may negatively impact those who grow younger, but we can cross that bridge when we get there. For now, we just need to ensure that young people don't get fat and that those who are unfortunate enough to be fat when young can get to their optimum weight and experience that while they are still young.

Natural, vegan suncare

by _sian._ @ beautyheaven - Suncare

I've been trying to find a good natural, vegan sunscreen that is not greasy and prefferably without a white cast. I especially want to find a good cruelty free face sunscreen.

I used to use Biore Aqua Watery Essence for my face and loved it, but I don't think it's cruelty free and it isn't completely natural.

Any suugestions?

747

Nearly Half of U.S. Sunscreens Would Be Banned in Europe. Why? They Don't Work

Nearly Half of U.S. Sunscreens Would Be Banned in Europe. Why? They Don't Work


Dr. Axe

And about 14% of sunscreens on the market contain an ingredient that actually triggers skin cancer lesions and tumors!

MicroRNA in Macrophage Exosomes Mediates Harms Done by Visceral Fat Tissue

by @ LongeCityNews

Enough excess visceral fat tissue will kill you. It causes chronic inflammation that accelerates all of the common fatal age-related diseases, and further produces disarray in metabolism leading to metabolic syndrome and then type 2 diabetes. Considering that type 2 diabetes can, for the vast majority of patients, be turned back even in the later stages through a sustained low calorie diet, it is quite amazing the amount of funding present in the field chasing pharmaceutical solutions to this condition. A sizable fraction of medical researchers are working on this problem rather than others precisely because that is where the funding is. Like the rest of us, scientists need to earn a living. Looking at the situation from a glass half full perspective, this work should inform work on the interaction of aging with normal levels of fat tissue in later life, a point when fat starts to produce a number of similar problems to those exhibited by young, obese individuals.

In the recent past, researchers have made some progress on determining the mechanisms by which excess fat produces inflammation: fat cells can act in similar ways to infected cells, rousing the immune system; in addition, the debris from dying fat cells produces similar results. A sizable proportion of fat tissue in obese individuals is composed of the immune cells called macrophages, and in the research noted below, it is signaling by these immune cells that links the presence of excess fat tissue to some of the consequences of excess fat tissue. It is possible to envisage a chain of consequences involving fat dysfunction and the immune system that initially directly produces inflammation, and then the progressively larger number of immune cells that become involved in the tissue themselves cause further dysfunction in metabolic processes.

It is also worth considering the evidence for deposits of visceral fat tissue to produce harmful effects through the creation of a larger than usual level of cellular senescence. Senescent cells cause problems through altered signaling, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. It will be interesting to see the degree to which the signaling mechanisms examined in the paper below are produced by senescent versus normal macrophage cells. This is all fairly speculative: researchers have found macrophages showing signs of senescence in older individuals, but there is currently some debate as to whether or not these are actually senescent cells. This part of the field is moving fairly rapidly, so answers may well emerge over the next few years, especially given the deployment of senolytic therapies to clear senescent cells into human trials.

Exosomes are the missing link to insulin resistance in diabetes

Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from obesity is an underlying cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. But the mechanism by which this occurs has remained cloaked. Researchers have now identified exosomes - extremely small vesicles or sacs secreted from most cell types - as the missing link. "The actions induced by exosomes as they move between tissues are likely to be an underlying cause of intercellular communication causing metabolic derangements of diabetes. By fluorescently labeling cells, we could see exosomes and the microRNA they carry moving from adipose tissue through the blood and infiltrating muscle and liver tissues."

During chronic inflammation, the primary tissue to become inflamed is adipose. Forty percent of adipose tissue in obesity is comprised of macrophages - specialized immune cells that promote tissue inflammation. Macrophages in turn create and secrete exosomes. When exosomes get into other tissues, they use the microRNA (miRNA) they carry to induce actions in the recipient cells. The macrophage-secreted miRNAs are on the hunt for messenger RNAs. When the miRNA finds a target in RNA, it binds to it, rendering the messenger RNA inactive. The protein that would have been encoded by the messenger RNA is no longer made. Thus, the miRNAs are a way to inhibit the production of key proteins.

Researchers took macrophages found in adipose tissue of obese mice and harvested their exosomes. Lean, healthy mouse models were treated with these "obese" exosomes and once-normal mice began exhibiting obesity-induced insulin resistance despite not being overweight. When reversing the process, the team found that they could restore insulin sensitivity to obese mice by treating them with exosomes from lean mice. The obese mice remained overweight, but were metabolically healthy. Similarly, during an in vitro study, when human liver and fat cells were treated with "obese" exosomes, these cells became insulin resistant. Conversely, when they were treated with "lean" macrophage exosomes, they became highly sensitive to insulin. "This is a key mechanism of how diabetes works. This is important because it pins the pathophysiology of the disease in inflamed adipose tissue macrophages which are making these exosomes. If we can find out which of the microRNAs in those exosomes cause the phenotype of diabetes, we can find drug targets."

Adipose Tissue Macrophage-Derived Exosomal miRNAs Can Modulate In Vivo and In Vitro Insulin Sensitivity

MiRNAs are regulatory molecules that can be packaged into exosomes and secreted from cells. Here, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in obese mice secrete miRNA-containing exosomes (Exos), which cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance when administered to lean mice. Conversely, ATM Exos obtained from lean mice improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when administered to obese recipients.

miR-155 is one of the miRNAs overexpressed in obese ATM Exos, and earlier studies have shown that knock out animals are insulin sensitive and glucose tolerant compared to controls. Furthermore, transplantation of wild type bone marrow into miR-15 knock out mice mitigated this phenotype. Taken together, these studies show that ATMs secrete exosomes containing miRNA cargo. These miRNAs can be transferred to insulin target cell types through mechanisms of paracrine or endocrine regulation with robust effects on cellular insulin action, in vivo insulin sensitivity, and overall glucose homeostasis.


View the full article at FightAging

Calorie Restriction Primer

by @ Articles - Articles

by Sven Bulterijs & Paul McGlothin,

Often described as the only proven intervention that extends mean and maximal life-span in mammalian species, it is also a lifestyle choice for the committed immortalist. But why and how does it work? How to begin and what are the downsides?

These and other questions are dressed in a short feature by Paul McGlothin, Co-author of “The CR Way” and
in a voiced slideshow by Sven Bulterijs, LongeCity Director and student in biochemistry and biotechnology.


-- Articleon Calorie Restriction by Paul McGlothin (.pdf)

-- Lectureon Calorie Restrictionby Sven Bulterijs (.pptx)

Ladurée Rose Petal Blush Les Merveilleuses Haul

by Mavis Ngui @ Beauty for Brekkie

One of the beauty buys I was most excited about on my recent trip to Tokyo (yes, againnn) is this: the Ladurée Rose Petal Blush. When I first saw it online I was like I MUST HAVE DIS and I did. I’ve never been a big fan of the Ladurée cafe; the first time I […]

The post Ladurée Rose Petal Blush Les Merveilleuses Haul appeared first on Beauty for Brekkie.

Cruelty free sunscreen moisturiser

by kic @ beautyheaven - Suncare

I'm looking for a cruelty free moisturisering sunscreen I can use daily and not feel weighed down by normal sunscreens.

135

LongeCity Science Initiatives - Autumn 2011 review

by @ Articles - Articles

“To conquer the blight of involuntary death” is a complex task: political, economic, logistic, and social factors all play a role in making this dream a reality. Ultimately though, the challenge remains a scientific and technological one. We need to know more about the details of death and aging and we need to test as many different approaches as we can. Recently, LongeCity has sought to contribute to these endeavors in its own small ways. Scientific research and technological development is are complex fields and very costly to pursue. There must now be millions of scientist and technologists in the world – more than ever in the history of mankind and billions are spend on research and development. In the light of this, what difference can a small online forum really make? We don’t k now the answer, but we realized that just because the task is daunting, this does not mean that we cannot dare to attempt it: LongeCity wouldn’t exist it were otherwise. So we started, to try, in out own small way, to make contributions to life extension science. To be sure, there were our many contributions to scientific events and publications, including our own book and scientific conferences, there was support which we gave to scientific initiatives, such as the M-Prize and there was also the community-designed supplement VIMMORTAL an area which we are currently considering to revisit... but in terms of hands-on science, LongeCity now looks back at three specific projects:

The first one was ‘Laser Ablation of Lipofuscin’ – this project emerged after a presentation by Nason Schooler where he showed that, exposed to a certain wavelength of laser light, young worms remained unaffected whereas old worms died. This was considered to be due to lipofuscin – a buildup of age-associated debris in the old worms. What if such lipofuscin deposits could be broken down by the application of laser light, leaving the surrounding tissue unaffected? It sounded like a real longshot but Nason was keen to pursue it, he just needed some funding to do it. Nason was quizzed by LongeCity members and he held up well in the face of some probing questions. Most importantly, the trailblazing Dr. Aubrey de Grey and the SENS programme endorsed Nasons research, recommended him for funding and agreed to host him, his worms and lasers in their own laboratories in the US. Also, the project seemed a good fit: it was quirky enough that it would struggle to get funding from other sources, it was high-risk pot also potentially high impact perhaps opening the door to an entire new field of anti-aging science.

Based on this, we conducted some internal discussions including strategic ones and eventually agreed in a Full Members Referendum to commence a fundraiser – LongeCity’s (them still trading as the
Immortality Institute) first ever fundraiser purely dedicated to practical science. We committed $8000 from institute funds, but only if that amount would be matched by donations. The fundraiser was a great success quickly raising and even exceeding the target amount. With our backing, Nason commend work in the SENS labs – and then a couple of difficulties arose. First the labs moved, and Nason moved also, but soon needed to relocate again for personal reasons. What to do? We had transferred the funds raised to SENS. To be sure that was a good place to leave them considering the good work this organisation aims to do. However, our members had donated not to support SENS but expressly to support the Laser ablation research project. So we negotiated to get some of the remaining funds back from SENS (who were very supportive) but then agonised over how to proceed: should we just let Nason conduct the research in his garage? Many an internet business was started this way, but we still felt we needed some scientific oversight. Members can trace some of our discussions here, suffice it to say that after many attempts we could not get the oversight regime that we wished, but there was pressure of course to continue the research. We agreed to some research going ahead at Nasons home, even visited to see his setup and conduct and interview. In short, we did what we could and yet, based on recent developments it turned out that maybe we should have been more reluctant. What remains to be salvaged from this project remains to be seen.

The next project launched a year later, was more stringently planned: there was a call for applications, and we organised some peer review. Two projects emerged tat we really liked and we decided to fund both, in turn. The first one was again based on worms: it looked at the cellular ‘powerplants’ – the mitochondria that play a key role in aging and sought to investigate if if chemical uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) can reduce damage to mitochondria and their specific DNA and if this would lead to extended lifespan in worms.
Again, we managed to raise the money relatively swiftly, based on some very generous donations. Jan kept the community informed throughout. Regrettably, after funding the project, the community seemed to take little interest. To be honest, when first launching the project Jan and LongeCity leadership were a bit worried that given LongeCity’s large and vibrant supplement discussion forums, some people might jump to very unsafe conclusions and ingest the mitochondrial uncouplers under investigation as a supplement. However, rather than there being too much enthusiasm, there wasn’t a lot of engagement. Jan and his team pursued the research, in this case according to best scientific practice as expected, this month,Dr. Gruber will discuss the results with Mind in our podcast- If you are interested, you are invited to post a question!

But how many people maintained an active interest? Its difficult to say (let us know!) but we were getting a bit worried – were LongeCity members not quite ready to really engage with our own community science projects?

It was hard to dismiss that impression during the months to follow when we tried to raise funds for LongeCity's most ambitious science project yet. This was not on worms, it involved mice. In scientific terms (and as far as costs are concerned) that is a huge leap to make things more relevant. The project also wasn’t very complicated: it used stem cell therapies – something everyone has heard of and many LongeCity members are excited about. It targeted a hugely important area – the brain – and involved not the garage of a lay person but one of Germany’s most prestigious scientific institutions and a researcher with an established track record in anti-ageing research. Yet over the weeks and months to follow, fundraising was slow. Donations were trickling in, but not quite with the speed that were had seen before. Was this the recession beginning to bite? Was the project just too big? Was the community ‘tapped out’ after the recent fundraiser? Were we not managing to promote the project effectively enough? There were rough patches, but donations kept coming in and that gave us hope. We could not let those contributors down. An then the breakthrough – venture investor had somehow learned about the research and saw its potential. We waited until we felt confident that this separate arrangement would make up the (bye now not very large) shortfall in LongeCity funding. The project is now merrily underway and you see updates on the project and you can ask questions to the researchers here.

With that major success achieved should we now stop the science programme and reconsider? We might have done that, but then, this Summer, Cryonics Pioneer Robert Ettinger was placed into biostasis. What better way to pay homage to his achievements than not to dwell in length accolades but to ‘get on with it’ and do some research. Again, cryonics science is a great field for LongeCity to get involved it: it is niche enough that mainstream funding is hard to obtain, yet the potential impacts even based on a small research budget are quite significant. So last month we closed the call for expressions of interest on our first cryopreservation research fundraiser, the proposals have been circulated for peer review and the board will draw up a shortlist. As usual, our members will have the final say on funding in a referendum (so join now if you want to have a say), and as usual, the project will only get funded if it received enough matching donations.

Let us see how we fare with this project, but whatever the outcome, we are unlikely to give up on the underlying principle: that LongeCity has a role, however small, to not ‘just’ engage in communication, networking and outreach, but also to make a tangible contribution to hands-on scientific development. This is one of the reasons we change the ‘public facing’ name of the Immortality Institute – to make it easier for serious scientists to engage with us. And to this end, we have launched the LongeCity Science initiative, where aim to improve our scientific communication.
As an example, this month we have published the first of a number of ‘gentle introductions’ on scientific topics -- an article by Johan Sjöberg on crosslinking in aging) and we seek to involve every LongeCity Member and Affiliate with a science background. In fact, we have just issued a new call for Lead officers at the Immortality Institute (Members only) to expressly include a Science Officer. So why not join in, at whatever level you like, share your perspective and skills in pursuit of that ambitious mission: "to conquer the blight of involuntary death".

La Roche-Posay ANTHELIOS XL ULTRA LIGHT SPF50+ Trial Team

by bh's Grace @ beautyheaven - Suncare

Are you part of the La Roche-Posay ANTHELIOS XL ULTRA LIGHT SUNCREEN SPF50+ Trial Team ?

This is now the dedicated forum thread where you can come throughout your trial to ask any questions about the product, share your experiences with fellow members about the product, and even answer some of the questions other Trial Teamers may have about these products.

So, let us know how you're going with the La Roche-Posay ANTHELIOS XL ULTRA LIGHT SUNCREEN SPF50+ because we'd absolutely love to hear all about it!

(Nudge, nudge: for those who aren't on this particular Trial Team, please feel free to join in the convo and ask our Trial Teamers about their road test – we're all as curious as you are!)

Grace x

28

Clear Channel Play digital screens reinforce the benefits of sunscreen for Bioré UV Perfect Spray

Clear Channel Play digital screens reinforce the benefits of sunscreen for Bioré UV Perfect Spray


Campaign Brief Asia

Kao Singapore has launched its latest campaign, 'Bioré UV Perfect Spray' to drive awareness and educate commuters on the damaging effects from exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) ray, which cannot be seen with a naked eye.Using context to deliver the right message is key. The Bioré UV Perfect Spray campaign leverages the contextual trigger of weather and time of day to deliver the right message at the right time and place - to educate the vital importance to protect their skin from the sun as sun damage occurs everyday and every minute their skin is exposed to the sun.

Aging theories: Is there a unifying factor in a...

by @ Articles

When Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was established, biologists were puzzled by the existence of senescence and aging among all organisms. Why did the evolutionary pressure not produce immortal species? They concluded that even the power of evolution has its limitations. It took almost hundred years to reach the idea that mortal individuals may be preferred by nature for following reasons — the genes resulting in advantage in early life might cause damage in late life, and the reproduction starts as soon as possible. Around the middle of twentieth century, there finally was a framework for the gerontological research conduced in the following decades — the first evolutionary theories of aging (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). 
There are two major groups of theories aiming to explain the mechanism of aging, so-called programmed and error theories. The programmed ones are based on the senescence-causing nature of certain genes (these are also called evolutionary theories), hormones or the immune system. Error theories claim that we age because of general damage caused by cell weariness, metabolic rate, cross-linked proteins, free radicals or somatic DNA changes (Jin, 2010).
The beauty of various aging theories is that most of them are not mutually exclusive. We can see that newer theories do not necessarily oppose the old ones, but rather shed more light and offer more in-depth views on the process of senescence.
The pioneering idea from 1882 was Weismanns’s theory of programmed death (also called wear-and-tear theory) claiming something like apoptosis of the multicellular organism. Although disproved by experiments, his theoretical explanation of the mechanism predicted the discovery of Hayflick limit (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). According to Weismann’s first conception, nature priorities young individuals over elderly because of limited resources. Pearl stated his ‘rate of living’ theory of aging in 1928, although the idea comes from Rubner who, in 1908, suggested that every organism has limited amount of metabolic energy and therefore its age depends on the rate of metabolism which correlates with organism’s size (Pearl, 1928). Most consider the rate of living theory to be flawed (Lints, 1989; de Magalhaes, Costa, & Church, 2007; Vaanholt, Daan, Schubert, & Visser, 2009).
A few decades later, the following evolutionary models have emerged: Medawar’s hypothesis of mutation accumulation proposes that aging is a by-product of natural selection — genes causing senescence in later stadium of life cannot be eliminated because the genetic information was most likely already transferred to successors by individuals in their early adulthood (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). This theory from 1952 is considered the first modern theory of aging. Charlesworth confronted Medawar’s model with a discovery of late-life mortality plateaus and in 1994 presented so-called modified mutation accumulation theory (Charlesworth, 2001; Ljubuncic & Reznick, 2009). In his antagonistic pleiotropy theory (also called ‘pay later’ theory), Williams in 1957 expressed the idea that even the same genes which cause trouble at advanced age may be advantageous in earlier stages of life, and therefore be not only tolerated, but even preferred by natural selection (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). In 1979, Kirkwood extended this theory to the disposable soma theory — organisms may save energy by reducing accuracy in cells metabolism and invest it in faster development and reproduction (Kirkwood & Holliday, 1979). This is the last one of famous, genes-orientated evolutionary models.
The following can be classified as programmed theories: The neuroendocrine theory proposed in 1954 by Dilman says that the main cause of aging is a loss of receptor sensitivity of the hypothalamus over time, and therefore its control of adequate production of hormones declines which leads to ineffectiveness and lower hormone levels in organism. It is an attempt to explain a high occurrence of degenerative diseases in late age (“Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging: Chapter 1,” 1999). Research on hormonal signaling pathways confirms that hormone levels have at least a partial role in determining longevity (van Heemst et al., 2005). In 1964, Walford suggested his immunologic theory of aging — due to increasing diversity of cells, the immune system looses its efficiency with age which leads to insufficient responses against pathogens as well as to autoimmune reactions against self proteins (Walford, 1964). 
All following attempts to explain the mechanism behind a process of aging are usually called error or damage theories. Bjorksten’s "crosslinkage theory" says that proteins become linked together in presence of certain crosslinking agents, and after some time, accumulation of these molecular aggregates causes decline in tissue functions. This theory from 1942 is no longer popular (Bjorksten, 1968). Later research has showed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in collagen and lead to outcomes predicted by Bjorksten (Verzijl et al., 2002; Aronson, 2003). 
These days very popular among researchers and public, the free radical theory was suggested by Harman in 1956. His idea was that the occurrence of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species naturally produced in living organisms, leads to macromolecular damage which accumulates and causes physiological changes known as senescence (Harman, 2009). Later he suggested the reactive oxygen species formation takes place mainly in mitochondria which causes a decline in important mitochondrial functions (Harman, 1972). Because of the theory’s popularity, various extensions of Harman’s model were created, usually considering different sites as a main target of free radicals. 
Failla’s somatic mutation theory from 1958 posits that increasing number of mutations of genetic material causes a decrease in cellular, organ and body functions (Failla, 1958; Gensler & Bernstein, 1981; Kennedy, Loeb, & Herr, 2012). The theory received a lot of criticism in previous decades (Vijg, 2000). Kaya, Lobanov and Gladyshev (2015) investigated aging in yeast and failed to find evidence in support of Failla’s thesis. 
Orgel proposed his error catastrophe theory in 1963. He saw the cause of aging in accumulation of malfunctioning proteins coming from errors during protein translation (Orgel, 1963). This theory never gained popularity and was soon disproved (Gershon & Gershon, 1976). 
Alexander in 1967 extended Failla’s theory by hypothesizing that DNA damage instead of mutation is the cause of aging (Alexander, 1967). These days, this version called "somatic DNA damage theory of aging" is more often used by scientists (Freitas & de Magalhaes, 2011; Soares et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that more damage happens in mitochondrial DNA than in nuclear DNA (Ames, 2009).
In 2002, Brunk and Terman published the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory. It states that defective macromolecules derived from mitochondria undergo further changes in lysosomes to become lipofuscin inclusions. These end products decrease cell’s autophagocytotic capacity which leads to more mitochondrial defects (Brunk & Terman, 2002). 
Zs.-Nagy’s "membrane hypothesis" focuses on a decline of mitochondrial functions due to lessened membrane permeability caused by residual heat coming from nerve signals as well as by reactive oxygen species (Zs.-Nagy, 2014). 
Recent versions of damage theories claim that free radicals are only one kind of senescence-causing by products of metabolism but the real initiator of all the inevitable damage is biological imperfectness. In other words, there are always types of damage which lack adequate repair mechanisms in organism and the most severe source of errors depends on actual conditions (Gladyshev, 2013; Gladyshev, 2014). This idea comes from the "reliability theory", which focuses on systems failure in machines (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2001). In spite of many research programs and lots of scientists involved, the unifying factor in aging is at the moment still unknown.

References



The above is a short perspective by Vit Zemanek. Continue the discussion and analysis on LongeCity's long-running AGING THEORIES forum.

Frailty is Not Entirely Irreversible, Even Now

by @ LongeCityNews

The research materials here fit nicely with a recent post in which the degree to which frailty is self-inflicted was discussed. In this age of comfort and technology, people eat too much and exercise too little. The latter point is demonstrated in the numerous studies that show benefits in older individuals arising from structured exercise programs, a turning back of some of the advance of age-related disability. Thus the progression of frailty is not inexorable for those who choose to exercise more frequently in later years, a small example of the point that our choices do make a difference.

As we age, we may be less able to perform daily activities because we may feel frail, or weaker than we have in the past. Frailer older adults may walk more slowly and have less energy. Frailty also raises a person's risks for falling, breaking a bone, becoming hospitalized, developing delirium, and dying. No one knows exactly how many older adults are frail - estimates range from 4 percent to 59 percent of the older adult population. Researchers say that frailty seems to increase with age, and is more common among women than men and in people with lower education and income. Being in poorer health and having several chronic illnesses also have links to being frail.

Frailty also tends to worsen over time, but in at least two studies, a small number (9 percent to 14 percent) of frail older adults became stronger and less frail as they aged. The researchers examined information gathered from more than 5,000 men aged 65 or older (average age was about 73) who had volunteered for a study about bone fractures caused by osteoporosis. At the start of the study, between 2000 and 2002, the men all lived independently and could walk; none had had hip replacements. Most of the men participated in a second examination about four years after the study began.

At the start of the study, the researchers determined the participants' frailty status by measuring levels of weakness, exhaustion, lean muscle mass, walking speed, and physical activity. The men were categorized as frail, pre-frail (had one or more signs of frailty, such as low grip strength, low energy, slow walking speed, low activity level or unintentional weight loss), or robust (showing no signs of frailty). At the start of the study, nearly 8 percent of the men were frail and 46 percent were pre-frail. The most common problems for the frail men were weakness, slowness, and low activity.

Over four and a half years, the number of frail men increased while the proportion of robust men decreased. Among the men who were frail at both visits: 56 percent had no change in frailty status, 35 percent had become frailer or had died, 15 percent of pre-frail or frail men improved. Having greater leg power, being married, and reporting good or excellent health were linked to improvements in frailty status.

Link: http://www.healthinaging.org/blog/frailty-and-older-men-study-identifies-factors-that-speed-or-slow-progression/


View the full article at FightAging

Top 10 Best Sunscreens in 2017 Reviews

Top 10 Best Sunscreens in 2017 Reviews


Review168

Do you want to have some fun outdoors? Protecting your skin from the Sun’s skin damaging rays should be your number one priority. What is more important than having a healthy skin after a Sunny day-out? Sunscreen protects your skin from this UV rays. Here are the Top 10 Best Sunscreens in 2017 Reviews; Table[Read More]

How To Exfoliate When You Have Acne

by Rima @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hello, ladies, Before we begin with today’s topic, I would like to wish you all a happy festive season. Coming back to today’s topic we would be talking about how to exfoliate when you have acne. Acne is an embarrassing issue for each one of us and what’s more difficult is to maintain your skin […]

The post How To Exfoliate When You Have Acne appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

Health Coach: Skills, Training + Benefits of Working with One

by Jillian Babcock @ Dr. Axe

As concerns keep growing globally regarding rising levels of obesity and chronic diseases related to poor nutrition, the help of health coaches seems to be needed more than ever. Health coaches — who have similar roles to registered dietitians (RDs) and certified nutritionists, but also some important differences — are valuable because they are said... Read more »

13 A-Plus Sunscreens for the Face — That Don't Smell Like Sunscreen

13 A-Plus Sunscreens for the Face — That Don't Smell Like Sunscreen


theFashionSpot

Ahead, 13 best face sunscreens that give broad spectrum protection, cater to a variety of skin types AND smell good (or don't smell at all).

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ reviews, photos, ingredients

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++ reviews, photos, ingredients


MakeupAlley

Biore UV Aqua Rich Watery Essence Sunscreen SPF50+ PA+++: rated 4.2 out of 5 on MakeupAlley. See 192 member reviews, ingredients and photos.

Why do some turtles outlive humans?

by @ Articles

(⇒ write for LongeCity )


The oldest human recorded in modernity was Jeanne Louise Calment, she died in the age of 122 years and 164 days [1] .

There are rumors that the oldest tortoise called Adwaita (Aldabra giant tortoise) died in the age of about 250 years [2] or that it was 188-year-old radiated tortoise named Tui Malila [3] , or that the highest verified age of 177 years had Galapagos giant tortoise Harriet [4] . The oldest currently living turtle is considered to be Jonathan (Seychelles giant tortoise), estimated to be over 180 years old these days [5] . Although all aforementioned numbers are estimations, it seems these turtles were older than human supercentenarians.

All previously mentioned species are terrestrial tortoises, a group with longest lifespans among turtles. The most famous of them, well-researched Galapagos giant tortoise, was observed by Charles Darwin when he was forming his well-known theory of evolution by natural selection [6] . There is only one freshwater turtle known to be able to outlive human, it is the common snapping turtle estimated to live up to more than hundred years [7] . While being considerably less researched, recorded maximal lifespan of sea turtles is usually shorter, not exceeding 80 years, however, it is believed that the green sea turtle can live up to 100 years. [8]

It is a difficult question to answer why these reptiles can outlive us because even to determine the actual age of animals with a long lifespan is complicated – partially due to the fact that it takes such a long time to study. Furthermore, many turtles are endangered species [9] so there may not be as many organisms to hand as needed for proper statistics. Nonetheless, we can still claim that turtles are among the most long-living vertebrates on earth [10] . Why?

Firstly, turtles, like all reptiles, benefit from being ectothermic organisms. They do not maintain body temperature and thus save a lot of energy. But that also means they are less flexible: it is crucial for their lifespan to be in natural temperature environment of daily cycles with night-time temperature drop [11] . If they do not live under these conditions in captivity, metabolic pathways change and turtles die much sooner. [12]

Turtles are well-adapted in other ways: their famous shell – the carapace –is good protection against natural predators. Most of hatchling turtles with a soft shell do not survive the first year [13] . A research of natural populations of freshwater turtles showed that only one per cent of them can celebrate the twentieth birthdays, but once the adulthood is reached, mortality rate drops and remains constant throughout the rest of life [14] .

Some turtles can survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as freezing [15] or lack of oxygen for months [16] . They can even undergo hibernation and anaerobic metabolism and therefore deal with hypoxia and anoxia, it was also proposed that the same genes can play a role in longevity itself [17] and also in oxidative stress resistance [18] that further promotes longer life [19] .

Turtle’s bones and shell are used as lactate buffer lowering metabolic acidosis caused by anaerobic glycolysis during the period of lack of oxygen [20] ; [21] Their organism is protected by strong innate immunity compensating slow acquired immune reactions [22] .

Because turtles have very slow metabolism as well as growth, their bodies do not need to deal with excessive metabolic heat and byproducts as mammals [23] . Their natural diet is very simple but also necessary for their longevity. [24]

According to the evolutionary theories, staying alive is less important after menopause. Galapagos giant tortoises achieve sexual maturity late (around the age of up to forty years in the wild, and between twenty and twenty-five years of life in captivity [25] ), then staying fertile until death [26] .

The Hayflick limit is said to determine how many times a cell can divide [27] . The Hayflick limit of Galapagos giant tortoise was said to be about 110 divisions [28] , approximately twice as many as 50 of human cells [29] . Studies in this context have highlighted the importance of telomeres, the protective end sequences of chromosomes, that get shorter with each cell division [30] , can play at least a partially role in life expectancy. It was observed that telomeres in European freshwater turtle’s cells are of the same length in both embryo and adult organism [31] .

Thus, it was believed that turtles are negligibly senescent organisms [32] . In other words, the cells do not age and no age-related diseases appear, which is very different cell behavior than in human bodies [33] and probably the key to any natural longevity. However, evidence now suggests that turtles may not be really negligibly senescent because of observations of survival and reproductive senescence in late age in the painted turtle population [34]

As we can see, turtles have some advantages in the lifespan field. Some of these might inspire researchers to increase lifespans in humans.



References

[1] Oldest person ever. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/oldest-person
[2] BBC (2006, March 23). “Clive of India’s” tortoise dies. BBC South Asia. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4837988.stm
[3] Associated Press (2006, June 26). Tortoise believed to have been owned by Darwin Dies at 176. Fox News. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/story/2006/06/26/tortoise-believed-to-have-been-owned-by-darwin-dies-at-176.html
[4] Galapagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra) longevity, ageing, and life history. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Geochelone_nigra
[5] Hollins, J. (2012). The world’s most isolated vet? Veterinary Record, 171(2), i–i. doi:10.1136/vr.g7292
[6] Powell, J., & Caccone, A. (2006). Giant tortoises. Current Biology, 16(5), R144–R145. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.050
[7] Cameron, M. (2008). COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Snapping Turtle Chelydra serpentina in Canada . Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2009/ec/CW69-14-565-2009E.pdf
[8] Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) longevity, ageing, and life history. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Chelonia_mydas
[9] Jacobson, E. R. (1994). Causes of Mortality and Diseases in Tortoises: A Review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 25(1), 2–17.
[10] Gibbons, J. W. (1987). Why do turtles live so long? BioScience, 37(4), 262–269. doi:10.2307/1310589
[11] Flouris, A. D., & Piantoni, C. (2014). Links between thermoregulation and aging in endotherms and ectotherms. Temperature, 2(1), 73–85. doi:10.4161/23328940.2014.989793
[12] Vadala, N. How Long Do Turtles Live? Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://www.petmd.com/reptile/care/how-long-do-turtles-live
[13] Stewart, K. R., & Wyneken, J. (2004). Predation risk to loggerhead hatchlings at a high-density nesting beach in Southeast Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(2), 325–335.
[14] Gibbons, J. W., & Semlitsch, R. D. (1982). Survivorship and longevity of a long-lived vertebrate species: How long do turtles live? The Journal of Animal Ecology, 51(2), 523. doi:10.2307/3981
[15] Packard, G. C., & Packard, M. J. (2003). Natural freeze-tolerance in hatchling painted turtles? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 134(2), 233–246. doi:10.1016/s1095-6433(02)00264-7
[16] Milton, S. L., & Prentice, H. M. (2007). Beyond anoxia: The physiology of metabolic downregulation and recovery in the anoxia-tolerant turtle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 147(2), 277–290. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.08.041
[17] Shaffer, H. B., Minx, P., Warren, D. E., Shedlock, A. M., Thomson, R. C., Valenzuela, N., … Wilson, R. K. (2013). The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage. Genome Biology, 14(3), R28.doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-3-r28
[18] Garbarino, V. R., Orr, M. E., Rodriguez, K. A., & Buffenstein, R. (2015). Mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance in the brain: Lessons learned from hypoxia tolerant extremophilic vertebrates. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 576, 8–16. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2015.01.029
[19] von Zglinicki, T. (2002). Oxidative stress shortens telomeres. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 27(7), 339–344. doi:10.1016/s0968-0004(02)02110-2
[20] Jackson, D. C. (2000). Living without oxygen: Lessons from the freshwater turtle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 125(3), 299–315. doi:10.1016/s1095-6433(00)00160-4
[21] Krivoruchko & Storey, 2010).
[22] Sandmeier, F. C., Tracy, C. R., Dupre, S., & Hunter, K. (2012). A trade-off between natural and acquired antibody production in a reptile: Implications for long-term resistance to disease. Biology Open, 1(11), 1078–1082. doi:10.1242/bio.20122527
[23] Bilinski, T., Paszkiewicz, T., & Zadrag-Tecza, R. (2015). Energy excess is the main cause of accelerated aging of mammals. Oncotarget, 6(15), 12909–12919. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.4271
[24] Casares, M., Honegger, R. E., & Rubel, A. (1995). Management of giant tortoises Geochelone elephantopus and Geochelone gigantean at Zurich Zoological gardens. International Zoo Yearbook, 34(1), 135–143. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1995.tb00671.x
[25] Global, S. D. Z. (2010). Galapagos tortoise fact sheet. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/galapagos_tortoise/tortoise.htm
[26] Curtin, A. J., Zug, G. R., & Spotila, J. R. (2009). Longevity and growth strategies of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in two American deserts. Journal of Arid Environments, 73(4-5), 463–471. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.11.011
[27] Hayflick, L. (1965). The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 37(3), 614–636. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(65)90211-9
[28] Goldstein, S. (1974). Aging in vitro. Experimental Cell Research, 83(2), 297–302. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(74)90342-5
[29] Hayflick, L., & Moorhead, P. S. (1961). The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 25(3), 585–621. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(61)90192-6
[30] Harley, C. B., Futcher, A. B., & Greider, C. W. (1990). Telomeres shorten during ageing of human fibroblasts. Nature, 345(6274), 458–460. doi:10.1038/345458a0
[31] Girondot, M., & Garcia, J. (1999). Senescence and longevity in turtles: What telomeres tell us. 9th extraordinary meeting of the societas Europaea Herpetologica, 1, 25–29. Retrieved from //www.researchgate.net/publication/252290006_Senescence_and_longevity_in_turtles_What_telomeres_tell_us
[32] Miller, J. K. (2001). Escaping senescence: Demographic data from the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis). Experimental Gerontology, 36(4-6), 829–832. doi:10.1016/s0531-5565(00)00243-6
[33] Schächter, F., Cohen, D., & Kirkwood, T. (1993). Prospects for the genetics of human longevity. Human Genetics, 91(6), . doi:10.1007/bf00205074
[34] Warner, D. A., Miller, D. A. W., Bronikowski, A. M., & Janzen, F. J. (2016). Decades of field data reveal that turtles senesce in the wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(23), 6502–6507. doi:10.1073/pnas.1600035113

10 Tips to Fix Unmanageable, Tangled Hair

by Richa Singh @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hello everyone, I am back with another post on how you can treat unmanageable, tangled hair so that you can style it as you like, and keep your hair looking healthy, shiny and strong. If you have very fine hair that is also voluminous, then you will know what it means to have unmanageable hair […]

The post 10 Tips to Fix Unmanageable, Tangled Hair appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

How Fermented Foods Reduce Social Anxiety

by Kathleen McCoy @ Dr. Axe

According to Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 15 million adults in the U.S. have social anxiety disorder. Onset typically occurs at 13 years old, and over one-third of people suffer with the symptoms for 10 years or more before seeking help. Social anxiety disorder causes extreme fear in social situations where judgment and being... Read more »

8 EWG Sunscreen Picks When You’re in a Pinch

by Leah Zerbe @ Dr. Axe

EWG sunscreen ratings serve as a lifeline for people who want to use sunscreen without all of the toxic ingredients. For more than a decade, EWG (the non-profit Environmental Working Group) takes on the annual task of sifting through sunscreen label claims, ingredient lists and scientific studies analyzing what’s really in those sunblock bottles. I know I’m... Read more »

6 Ways to Improve Scleroderma Symptoms Naturally

by Christine Babcock @ Dr. Axe

Scleroderma  is a rare and difficult disease. Also known as systemic sclerosis, it affects about 75,000 to 100,000 people in the United States. It can be a severe condition that can cause significant physical distress, disability and shortened life expectancy. Many patients with scleroderma are uncomfortable and self conscious about their appearance. This leads to... Read more »

YOLF's Blog - Why dreams are difficult to remember (sometimes)

by @ LONGECITY Community Blog List

So it occurred to me that there is a reason behind the phenomena of difficult to remember dreams. Imo, that reason is much the same as the reason that we forget things. Emotional volatility. When we're not fluid versions of ourselves or we're keeping ourselves all bottled up and being different people in different situations we're compartmentalizing our memories and will need to reassociate our memories across more dimensions of our personality. People with the extreme smart genes will naturally experience this memory transience despite having better long term, visual, and working memories than others and is in this writer's opinion the reason behind the absent minded professor syndrome many people experience. But don't think that b/c you're not in the upper echelons of intelligence that you won't be effected. Einstein once said that if you judge a fish by it's ability to climb a tree, it will live it's whole life thinking it's inferior. The distribution of some of the major effectors of intelligence is much more common than the number of people using them. One gene that creates up to a 25% increase in cognition will not only make you a better and more thoughtful friend and lover, but it's also held by about 25% of people, yet not everyone get's the whole benefit of it. We take supplements to get smarter, but for many, they may have capacities they aren't using or weren't taught to use. Many can skip a generation and the habits and behavior that creates or leverages the benefit associated with the gene is lost when children don't inherit it. So short of cloning, our upbringings will never be perfect enough to provide us with 100% translation of what might be called the operating system (our behavioral and personality traits) of our minds. Instead we focus on finding ourselves with things like flow states and that sort of thing. But what if genetics and psychoanalytics can double all the benefits people see from taking nootropics and be used to determine what exactly you're missing? Contact me. I'm offering life coaching that leverages your 23andme genotyping data to make the most of you possible.

 

I've been thoroughly impressed by the accomplishments of families who made the best of their traits with their children being very high performers simply for learning to use themselves 100%. And while I do advocate for giving everyone the gift of high intelligence genetics, I like to think of myself as part of the 100% crowd rather than the small fraction of a percent crowd in the sense that a great deal of benefit goes unused when we aren't adapted to it well enough.

6 Sunscreen Rules to Follow When You're Pregnant

6 Sunscreen Rules to Follow When You're Pregnant


Fit Pregnancy and Baby

6 Sunscreen Rules to Follow When You're Pregnant

Full Face of First Impressions (Sephora Hauling)

by Karima McKimmie @ Shameless Fripperies

Super chatty life update & get ready with me :) Watch me try  LOTS of new makeup from Marc Jacobs, Guerlain, Tarte & more! This video is a collaboration with Sephora Australia in celebration of their Black Friday sale (expired). Final Look Nail polish I’m wearing in this tutorial Perfect Match Shellac in Happy Hour […]

The post Full Face of First Impressions (Sephora Hauling) appeared first on Shameless Fripperies.

Vietnam Trip begins! Day 1

by noreply@blogger.com (DannChu) @ This and that from DANNCHU

(Will upload pictures soon since having some uploading dificulties >_<)

Hey everyone, hope you're all doing well!

So blogger finally fixed my error code issue so I can finally blog again! Especially when I am currently on an overseas trip to Vietnam with my mom for one month. Which is perfect timing too because I can't find a decent video editing avi-support app for my android tablet in order to edit some videos for vlogs.


Currently writing this entry as I am on the plane though just via note/document since there's no wifi on the plane let alone the entertainment system for my mom's seat and mine is broken sooo yeah.

So far the flight is going smooth, the weather is great and I have finally found it amusing to look at clouds for a good 15-20 minutes trying to spot out of the cloud looks like anything. For example- the puppy with its ball :3


Checking in our baggages and going through customs went really smoothly which was awesome since my mom and I always shit ourselves as if it looks like we really did something wrong. BUT luckily nothing happened, and for once I didn't have to strip off my belt and boots unlike previous trips.
The plane we boarded is Vietnam Airline's VN 772. It's a fairly small plain in my opinion hence the window seats having online two seats per side per row (4 in total) in which my mom and I occupied one window side. We're seated quite near the tail though, but luckily not all the way to end. Probably around 3/4 through the plane? But yeah as I mentioned earlier, the flight has been smooth so far, not much turbulance... Well not the turbulance where coffee cups was spilling cos it was that shaky (previous experiences).

We just finished our first meal aka lunch (morning flight) and it wasn't bad than I would have thought. Alot of people don't enjoy airplane food but I usually do, it's probably because the thrill that I'm travelling- though going home is a different story. HAHAHA! Mom had the beef stir fried beef with oriental sauce served with steamed rice and boiled veggies; whilst I had the Fried Nile perch with oriental ginger sauce served with steam rice and boiled veggies. Both our meals was served with a mini coleslaw with two slices of hungarian salami, a break roll and butter, and blueberry friand for dessert.

I look forward to the later meal aka refreshments which will be a choice of either minced beef with satay sauce served with fried egg noodles, or panfried chicken with steamed rice. I get the feeling both my mom and I will get the satay sauce beef with egg noodles because we're not much of rice eaters. OH and apparently there will be a mini fruitsalad for dessert which I look forward to because fruit.

Usually feel super gross and bloated whenever I travel because we sit for a long period of time in one spot with little movement space unless going to bathroom or something, and then you eat and then just continue sitting. SO yeah, something like fruit salad sound so refreshing and good. Speaking of fruit, all I've been drinking on the plane is tomato juice. I love that stuff. I feel that sometimes their apple juices can be overly sweet despite being tart and orange juice is just bitter- not my cup of tea. Soft drinks, I'd probably go for sprite or 7UP but yeah tomato juice is the bomb for me. It's somewhat sweet but not sweet sweet at the same time has that tomato tartness but not overly tart. And especially because it's not whole tomato juice and mixed it water, it dilutes the tomato taste so you don't really get that ketchup/tomato-sauce taste that people always say "HOW DO YOU DRINK TOMATO JUICE, IT'S LIKE DRINKING TOMATO SAUCE" -____-)p It's entirely different I reckon.
ANYWAY, I'm just gonna leave it for now and continue blogging once I arrive Vietnam which will be in another 5 hours time :) This will be a long post since I'm writing it at two-three different times but yeah :D

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hello I'm back but this time, I am currently at my aunty's apartment where I'll be staying alot during the night to sleep whilst staying at my other aunty's house with other family members during the day.

I'll just keep it short from here on since I didn't realise what I wrote earlier was HELLA LOOONGGG. I'm sooo sorry.

My second meal was indeed more refreshing, well the fruit salad was. LOL! The only downer was that the beef and fried noodle was quite salty in a non flavorable way. But hey, fruit salad with pineapple, watermelon and rockmelon? I'm real good.

The landing of the plane was UNEXPECTEDLY SUPER QUIET. I definitely did not expect this because usually the landing is quite rough to the point i cringe and prepare but the insane bumpiness BUT this time was just .. "oh we already landed. wth? almost didn't feel a thing."
 
There was no trouble going through the Vietnam customs and we got our luggage just fine. Mom wanted me to wear my platinum blonde wig for a big difference for my family so I went to the bathroom while my mom was getting the other luggages. I swear, my family didn't react much until later on the night I told them it was a wig. The big reaction was just the general public in Vietnam. Legit 99.8% of people were staring at me and I could just hear them ask themselves or their friends/relatives: "is that real? so rebellious. Must be one of those outgoing kids". Nothing bad at all, actually it's quite fun hearing them hahaha.
After sorting out luggages abit at my mom's family house, my family and I went out to a local shopping centre called "NOW ZONE" and we had coffee and dessert at the "NYDC Cafe". Had great laughs especially my first ever nephew was there and it was just fun seeing him since he was almost 12 months young. After we all went to the food court upstairs because some of us were getting hungry.

Overall it was such a great day :)
Hoping I can make the rest of my trip memorable and wonderful :D
Until then, stay well and take care!

Ask Karima #3 - Sunscreen, Procrastination & Large Pores Ask Karima, Blog - Shameless Fripperies

Ask Karima #3 - Sunscreen, Procrastination & Large Pores Ask Karima, Blog - Shameless Fripperies


Shameless Fripperies

We're back with Ask Karima #3 where we discuss sunscreens, hair care and my bizarre diary tendencies. If you're new to this segment, welcome! Check out Ask

Midsummer 2011 Redesign

by @ Archive - Articles

During today's downtime a number of new features were implemented:


1) Design: with the help of the winning desinger we are starting to implement customisations. We are also looking at a new 'skin' for the forum for a fresh new look.


2) Tags: Topic starters can now designate tags to their posts and thereby cross-reference posts to broader themes and topics. Potentially a very powerful tool to make LongeCity a more powerful information repository while maintaining the community-driven ethos.


3) Customised 'recent topics' - many people who use this feature regularly will enjoy the new capacity to only include certain forums in the automated collection.


4) Operability: a number of technical tweaks should hopefully make the forums quicker to navigate.




These are just some of the new features, others are still bedding in.
A few words about that and a request for feedback here.

----

Upregulating GLT-1 for minimizing mental exhaustion/excitoxicity

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

Here is a very interesting article in which the the authors posit that mental fatigue acts as a compensatory 'gating' mechanism, due to the perturbation of higher order CNS constructs there is reduced top-down mediation of sensor input and thus "sensory overload" results , this then leads to down regulating arousal to diminish this perceptive hyperactivity. The top-down modulation, or high order gating, uses excessive resources as it requires constant monitoring and weighting of all senses...This draws obvious parallels to various pathologies; MS, Autism, ADHD, Schizophrenia etc. 

 

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533886/

 

 

"Based on this literature and observations from our

own laboratory and others on the role of astroglial cells in the fine-tuning of glutamate
neurotransmission we present the hypothesis that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis
factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 could be involved in the pathophysiology of mental fatigue through their
ability to attenuate the astroglial clearance of extracellular glutamate, their disintegration of the
blood brain barrier, and effects on astroglial metabolism and metabolic supply for the neurons,
thereby attenuating glutamate transmission..."

 

"It may be that mental fatigue is a stereotypical reaction to disturbance of "higher" brain functions. The brain, with its billions of specialized neurons and supporting glial cells, works as a "whole" organ. Every disturbance of brain homeostasis, no matter where the anatomical localization is, would therefore attenuate brain capacity for information processing and, as a consequence, information intake. One way to diminish information intake and processing at the cellular level would be to impair glutamate neurotransmission by attenuating the glial support and especially diminishing the astroglial capacity to clear [Glu]ec. The initial consequence would be slightly increased [Glu]ec, with less precision in glutamate transmission. This would disintegrate the "filter", which normally selects information and prevents it from reaching the cerebral cortex. We can take the sound from a low-frequency fan as an example. This sound is normally sorted out after hearing it for a while. If this sound is handled with less precision by auditory recognition systems, it will continually be recognized by brain centers as "new" information and be processed in the cerebral cortex as long as the sound is on. The "filter" that normally restrains already recognized information from reaching higher brain centers, has been "opened". From a physiological point of view, it seems appropriate that the individual, and not the brain at the synaptic level, should determine which information should reach, and be processed by, the cerebral cortex. The decreased attention, increased loudness and light sensitivity, and irritability could be physiological ways of avoiding overstimulation of higher cortical centers. In case the individuals cannot protect themselves from too much sensory stimulation, the filter's opening leads to overstimulation of the cerebral cortex. Here, the final shutdown of the glutamate transmission could be one mechanism underlying mental exhaustion (figure ​(figure11)."

 

 

From theory onto application. 

 

I suspect that for those with systemic inflammation type of ailments upregulating GLT-1 might be a viable target for, at least some symptomatic remission of the otherwise crippling fatigue that accompany them. For me this may be an option to attenuate what I can only assume is hyper glutaminergic tone resulting from many years of Lyme's disease. Interestingly I became aware of the therapeutic potential after having read an article of Ceftriaxone effectively clearing b- Amyloid plaque in small animal models of Alz; this was of further interest given the Ceftriaxone could then offer a 2 birds with one stone type of scenario. No doubt chronic neuroinflammation induces plaque formation, while that in itself is not the end goal for me per se, more-so reducing glutaminergic tone, it certainly can't hurt. Unfortunately after some deep thinking my lifestyle and general life circumstances does provide an ideal base for moving forward with IV antibiotics, as there are a multitude of constraints and considerations nor of which are overly trivial.

 

Nevertheless, in a cursory review of some literature it seems that there may be alternatives to Ceftriaxone - such as supplemental NAC. NAC certainly has effects on the GLT-1 transporter, although most research has been within the addiction framework, whereby function has been "rescued" following chronic drug administration.  Yet, also there seems within the literature and more of recent, disparate and even conflicting findings regarding the potential utility of this as raised in this post: http://www.longecity.org/forum/topic/79703-nac-breaks-down-bbb-increases-amyloid-and-microbleeds-in-stroke-prone-rats/.

 

Of course there are alternatives for addressing this in a more transient fashion, NMDA antagonists could be employed such as DXM, or Metamine. While Metamine of course is purposely marketed for Alzheimer's, it from what I gather, does not actively clear b amyloid but rather reduces its accumulation and thus is more prophylactically administered.  

 

Anyway, sorry for the lack of direction in this post. Honestly, I entertain discussion on both sides of this. 

 

 

The 10 Best Car Battery Chargers Reviewed In 2017

by Nimol Or @ BuyTheTOP10

Car battery chargers are indispensable tools to have in your automobile. If you’ve been a victim of a low or dead battery, then you...

The post The 10 Best Car Battery Chargers Reviewed In 2017 appeared first on BuyTheTOP10.

Cryonics Hardship Fund

by @ LongeCity - Articles

Cryonics is a method of ‘medical time travel’ - placing the body in biostasis after legal death with the hope that future technology will be invented which can revive the body. To most people who share LongeCity’s mission cryonics is the ‘second worst thing’ that can happen to you, but nonetheless a viable alternative to burial or creation.

Cryonics prices vary (an overview can be found on this page maintained by Cryonics expert and LongeCity Advisor Ben Best) but it is affordable to nearly everyone via life insurance… nearly everyone. A few people who really want cryonics cannot get life insurance: After an accident, LongeCity Member James Swayze found himself quadriplegic and unable to get insurance. The life of LongeCity Member William O’Rights took a turn for the worst when he was diagnosed with aggressive throat cancer after having been suddenly deprived of all funds. Kim Suozzi was 23 and had not yet heard about cryonics when she was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. Aaron Winborn heard of her case - and cryonics- only when the debilitating effects of Lou Gehrig's Disease had already begun to paralyse him. All these people were eventually offered a cryonics provision through the generous donations of others in our community.
We want to continue this proud tradition, looking out for those who share our common dream in unlimited lifespans, in the shadow of imminent death and despair.

However, this needs to be done carefully. It cannot be stressed enough that cryonics is affordable to most people if they only have the foresight to act early and arrange affordable life insurance. This element of personal responsibility is at the heart not just of cryonics. If we establish a hardship scheme, it must not create a moral hazard, and incentive to put things off as too unpleasant and complicated to think about until it is too late. Of course, we must also ward against fraud and abuse. An element of careful analysis and due diligence is therefore required, looking into the circumstances of each individual case.

The LongeCity cryonics hardship fund has two purposes:
1) To support a (volunteer based) infrastructure for maintaining the scheme and exercising the due diligence mentioned above
2) When a hardship case has been endorsed by LongeCity, we will use the hardship fund to help to fundraise for that individual by matching further donations. All these donations will go to a dedicated account for that person’s cryopreservation, never to the individual directly.

Applicants to our cryonics hardship fund must
- co-operate fully with LongeCity appointed auditors and reviewers
- genuinely be unable to not fully fund their cryosuspension and not have a reasonable chance of doing so prior to their likely death
- help to fundraise for their cause and help raise public awareness for cryonics

In the past, we have partnered with our friend in the Venturist community on cryonic hardship cases. We hoping to do so again on future occasions.



Click HERE to make a contribution to the fund

To apply email the full details of your case: contact@longecity.org

Aging theories: Is there a unifying factor in a...

by @ LongeCity - Articles

When Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was established, biologists were puzzled by the existence of senescence and aging among all organisms. Why did the evolutionary pressure not produce immortal species? They concluded that even the power of evolution has its limitations. It took almost hundred years to reach the idea that mortal individuals may be preferred by nature for following reasons — the genes resulting in advantage in early life might cause damage in late life, and the reproduction starts as soon as possible. Around the middle of twentieth century, there finally was a framework for the gerontological research conduced in the following decades — the first evolutionary theories of aging (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). 
There are two major groups of theories aiming to explain the mechanism of aging, so-called programmed and error theories. The programmed ones are based on the senescence-causing nature of certain genes (these are also called evolutionary theories), hormones or the immune system. Error theories claim that we age because of general damage caused by cell weariness, metabolic rate, cross-linked proteins, free radicals or somatic DNA changes (Jin, 2010).
The beauty of various aging theories is that most of them are not mutually exclusive. We can see that newer theories do not necessarily oppose the old ones, but rather shed more light and offer more in-depth views on the process of senescence.
The pioneering idea from 1882 was Weismanns’s theory of programmed death (also called wear-and-tear theory) claiming something like apoptosis of the multicellular organism. Although disproved by experiments, his theoretical explanation of the mechanism predicted the discovery of Hayflick limit (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). According to Weismann’s first conception, nature priorities young individuals over elderly because of limited resources. Pearl stated his ‘rate of living’ theory of aging in 1928, although the idea comes from Rubner who, in 1908, suggested that every organism has limited amount of metabolic energy and therefore its age depends on the rate of metabolism which correlates with organism’s size (Pearl, 1928). Most consider the rate of living theory to be flawed (Lints, 1989; de Magalhaes, Costa, & Church, 2007; Vaanholt, Daan, Schubert, & Visser, 2009).
A few decades later, the following evolutionary models have emerged: Medawar’s hypothesis of mutation accumulation proposes that aging is a by-product of natural selection — genes causing senescence in later stadium of life cannot be eliminated because the genetic information was most likely already transferred to successors by individuals in their early adulthood (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). This theory from 1952 is considered the first modern theory of aging. Charlesworth confronted Medawar’s model with a discovery of late-life mortality plateaus and in 1994 presented so-called modified mutation accumulation theory (Charlesworth, 2001; Ljubuncic & Reznick, 2009). In his antagonistic pleiotropy theory (also called ‘pay later’ theory), Williams in 1957 expressed the idea that even the same genes which cause trouble at advanced age may be advantageous in earlier stages of life, and therefore be not only tolerated, but even preferred by natural selection (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2002). In 1979, Kirkwood extended this theory to the disposable soma theory — organisms may save energy by reducing accuracy in cells metabolism and invest it in faster development and reproduction (Kirkwood & Holliday, 1979). This is the last one of famous, genes-orientated evolutionary models.
The following can be classified as programmed theories: The neuroendocrine theory proposed in 1954 by Dilman says that the main cause of aging is a loss of receptor sensitivity of the hypothalamus over time, and therefore its control of adequate production of hormones declines which leads to ineffectiveness and lower hormone levels in organism. It is an attempt to explain a high occurrence of degenerative diseases in late age (“Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging: Chapter 1,” 1999). Research on hormonal signaling pathways confirms that hormone levels have at least a partial role in determining longevity (van Heemst et al., 2005). In 1964, Walford suggested his immunologic theory of aging — due to increasing diversity of cells, the immune system looses its efficiency with age which leads to insufficient responses against pathogens as well as to autoimmune reactions against self proteins (Walford, 1964). 
All following attempts to explain the mechanism behind a process of aging are usually called error or damage theories. Bjorksten’s "crosslinkage theory" says that proteins become linked together in presence of certain crosslinking agents, and after some time, accumulation of these molecular aggregates causes decline in tissue functions. This theory from 1942 is no longer popular (Bjorksten, 1968). Later research has showed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in collagen and lead to outcomes predicted by Bjorksten (Verzijl et al., 2002; Aronson, 2003). 
These days very popular among researchers and public, the free radical theory was suggested by Harman in 1956. His idea was that the occurrence of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species naturally produced in living organisms, leads to macromolecular damage which accumulates and causes physiological changes known as senescence (Harman, 2009). Later he suggested the reactive oxygen species formation takes place mainly in mitochondria which causes a decline in important mitochondrial functions (Harman, 1972). Because of the theory’s popularity, various extensions of Harman’s model were created, usually considering different sites as a main target of free radicals. 
Failla’s somatic mutation theory from 1958 posits that increasing number of mutations of genetic material causes a decrease in cellular, organ and body functions (Failla, 1958; Gensler & Bernstein, 1981; Kennedy, Loeb, & Herr, 2012). The theory received a lot of criticism in previous decades (Vijg, 2000). Kaya, Lobanov and Gladyshev (2015) investigated aging in yeast and failed to find evidence in support of Failla’s thesis. 
Orgel proposed his error catastrophe theory in 1963. He saw the cause of aging in accumulation of malfunctioning proteins coming from errors during protein translation (Orgel, 1963). This theory never gained popularity and was soon disproved (Gershon & Gershon, 1976). 
Alexander in 1967 extended Failla’s theory by hypothesizing that DNA damage instead of mutation is the cause of aging (Alexander, 1967). These days, this version called "somatic DNA damage theory of aging" is more often used by scientists (Freitas & de Magalhaes, 2011; Soares et al., 2014). Evidence suggests that more damage happens in mitochondrial DNA than in nuclear DNA (Ames, 2009).
In 2002, Brunk and Terman published the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory. It states that defective macromolecules derived from mitochondria undergo further changes in lysosomes to become lipofuscin inclusions. These end products decrease cell’s autophagocytotic capacity which leads to more mitochondrial defects (Brunk & Terman, 2002). 
Zs.-Nagy’s "membrane hypothesis" focuses on a decline of mitochondrial functions due to lessened membrane permeability caused by residual heat coming from nerve signals as well as by reactive oxygen species (Zs.-Nagy, 2014). 
Recent versions of damage theories claim that free radicals are only one kind of senescence-causing by products of metabolism but the real initiator of all the inevitable damage is biological imperfectness. In other words, there are always types of damage which lack adequate repair mechanisms in organism and the most severe source of errors depends on actual conditions (Gladyshev, 2013; Gladyshev, 2014). This idea comes from the "reliability theory", which focuses on systems failure in machines (Gavrilov & Gavrilova, 2001). In spite of many research programs and lots of scientists involved, the unifying factor in aging is at the moment still unknown.

References



The above is a short perspective by Vit Zemanek. Continue the discussion and analysis on LongeCity's long-running AGING THEORIES forum.

Vegan Cuts June 2017 Beauty Box Review + Contents

by Aly Laughlin @ Cruelty-Free Kitty

I am excited to share the next installment of the Vegan Cuts Beauty Box with you! As I mentioned in my review of the May Box, The Vegan Cuts Beauty Box is a monthly subscription box filled with 4-7 100% vegan and cruelty-free products. The Beauty Box differs from the Vegan Cuts Makeup Box in […]

The post Vegan Cuts June 2017 Beauty Box Review + Contents appeared first on Cruelty-Free Kitty.

Why do some turtles outlive humans?

by @ Articles - Articles

(⇒ write for LongeCity )


The oldest human recorded in modernity was Jeanne Louise Calment, she died in the age of 122 years and 164 days [1] .

There are rumors that the oldest tortoise called Adwaita (Aldabra giant tortoise) died in the age of about 250 years [2] or that it was 188-year-old radiated tortoise named Tui Malila [3] , or that the highest verified age of 177 years had Galapagos giant tortoise Harriet [4] . The oldest currently living turtle is considered to be Jonathan (Seychelles giant tortoise), estimated to be over 180 years old these days [5] . Although all aforementioned numbers are estimations, it seems these turtles were older than human supercentenarians.

All previously mentioned species are terrestrial tortoises, a group with longest lifespans among turtles. The most famous of them, well-researched Galapagos giant tortoise, was observed by Charles Darwin when he was forming his well-known theory of evolution by natural selection [6] . There is only one freshwater turtle known to be able to outlive human, it is the common snapping turtle estimated to live up to more than hundred years [7] . While being considerably less researched, recorded maximal lifespan of sea turtles is usually shorter, not exceeding 80 years, however, it is believed that the green sea turtle can live up to 100 years. [8]

It is a difficult question to answer why these reptiles can outlive us because even to determine the actual age of animals with a long lifespan is complicated – partially due to the fact that it takes such a long time to study. Furthermore, many turtles are endangered species [9] so there may not be as many organisms to hand as needed for proper statistics. Nonetheless, we can still claim that turtles are among the most long-living vertebrates on earth [10] . Why?

Firstly, turtles, like all reptiles, benefit from being ectothermic organisms. They do not maintain body temperature and thus save a lot of energy. But that also means they are less flexible: it is crucial for their lifespan to be in natural temperature environment of daily cycles with night-time temperature drop [11] . If they do not live under these conditions in captivity, metabolic pathways change and turtles die much sooner. [12]

Turtles are well-adapted in other ways: their famous shell – the carapace –is good protection against natural predators. Most of hatchling turtles with a soft shell do not survive the first year [13] . A research of natural populations of freshwater turtles showed that only one per cent of them can celebrate the twentieth birthdays, but once the adulthood is reached, mortality rate drops and remains constant throughout the rest of life [14] .

Some turtles can survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as freezing [15] or lack of oxygen for months [16] . They can even undergo hibernation and anaerobic metabolism and therefore deal with hypoxia and anoxia, it was also proposed that the same genes can play a role in longevity itself [17] and also in oxidative stress resistance [18] that further promotes longer life [19] .

Turtle’s bones and shell are used as lactate buffer lowering metabolic acidosis caused by anaerobic glycolysis during the period of lack of oxygen [20] ; [21] Their organism is protected by strong innate immunity compensating slow acquired immune reactions [22] .

Because turtles have very slow metabolism as well as growth, their bodies do not need to deal with excessive metabolic heat and byproducts as mammals [23] . Their natural diet is very simple but also necessary for their longevity. [24]

According to the evolutionary theories, staying alive is less important after menopause. Galapagos giant tortoises achieve sexual maturity late (around the age of up to forty years in the wild, and between twenty and twenty-five years of life in captivity [25] ), then staying fertile until death [26] .

The Hayflick limit is said to determine how many times a cell can divide [27] . The Hayflick limit of Galapagos giant tortoise was said to be about 110 divisions [28] , approximately twice as many as 50 of human cells [29] . Studies in this context have highlighted the importance of telomeres, the protective end sequences of chromosomes, that get shorter with each cell division [30] , can play at least a partially role in life expectancy. It was observed that telomeres in European freshwater turtle’s cells are of the same length in both embryo and adult organism [31] .

Thus, it was believed that turtles are negligibly senescent organisms [32] . In other words, the cells do not age and no age-related diseases appear, which is very different cell behavior than in human bodies [33] and probably the key to any natural longevity. However, evidence now suggests that turtles may not be really negligibly senescent because of observations of survival and reproductive senescence in late age in the painted turtle population [34]

As we can see, turtles have some advantages in the lifespan field. Some of these might inspire researchers to increase lifespans in humans.



References

[1] Oldest person ever. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/oldest-person
[2] BBC (2006, March 23). “Clive of India’s” tortoise dies. BBC South Asia. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4837988.stm
[3] Associated Press (2006, June 26). Tortoise believed to have been owned by Darwin Dies at 176. Fox News. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/story/2006/06/26/tortoise-believed-to-have-been-owned-by-darwin-dies-at-176.html
[4] Galapagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra) longevity, ageing, and life history. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Geochelone_nigra
[5] Hollins, J. (2012). The world’s most isolated vet? Veterinary Record, 171(2), i–i. doi:10.1136/vr.g7292
[6] Powell, J., & Caccone, A. (2006). Giant tortoises. Current Biology, 16(5), R144–R145. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.050
[7] Cameron, M. (2008). COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Snapping Turtle Chelydra serpentina in Canada . Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2009/ec/CW69-14-565-2009E.pdf
[8] Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) longevity, ageing, and life history. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Chelonia_mydas
[9] Jacobson, E. R. (1994). Causes of Mortality and Diseases in Tortoises: A Review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 25(1), 2–17.
[10] Gibbons, J. W. (1987). Why do turtles live so long? BioScience, 37(4), 262–269. doi:10.2307/1310589
[11] Flouris, A. D., & Piantoni, C. (2014). Links between thermoregulation and aging in endotherms and ectotherms. Temperature, 2(1), 73–85. doi:10.4161/23328940.2014.989793
[12] Vadala, N. How Long Do Turtles Live? Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://www.petmd.com/reptile/care/how-long-do-turtles-live
[13] Stewart, K. R., & Wyneken, J. (2004). Predation risk to loggerhead hatchlings at a high-density nesting beach in Southeast Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 74(2), 325–335.
[14] Gibbons, J. W., & Semlitsch, R. D. (1982). Survivorship and longevity of a long-lived vertebrate species: How long do turtles live? The Journal of Animal Ecology, 51(2), 523. doi:10.2307/3981
[15] Packard, G. C., & Packard, M. J. (2003). Natural freeze-tolerance in hatchling painted turtles? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 134(2), 233–246. doi:10.1016/s1095-6433(02)00264-7
[16] Milton, S. L., & Prentice, H. M. (2007). Beyond anoxia: The physiology of metabolic downregulation and recovery in the anoxia-tolerant turtle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 147(2), 277–290. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.08.041
[17] Shaffer, H. B., Minx, P., Warren, D. E., Shedlock, A. M., Thomson, R. C., Valenzuela, N., … Wilson, R. K. (2013). The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage. Genome Biology, 14(3), R28.doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-3-r28
[18] Garbarino, V. R., Orr, M. E., Rodriguez, K. A., & Buffenstein, R. (2015). Mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance in the brain: Lessons learned from hypoxia tolerant extremophilic vertebrates. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 576, 8–16. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2015.01.029
[19] von Zglinicki, T. (2002). Oxidative stress shortens telomeres. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 27(7), 339–344. doi:10.1016/s0968-0004(02)02110-2
[20] Jackson, D. C. (2000). Living without oxygen: Lessons from the freshwater turtle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 125(3), 299–315. doi:10.1016/s1095-6433(00)00160-4
[21] Krivoruchko & Storey, 2010).
[22] Sandmeier, F. C., Tracy, C. R., Dupre, S., & Hunter, K. (2012). A trade-off between natural and acquired antibody production in a reptile: Implications for long-term resistance to disease. Biology Open, 1(11), 1078–1082. doi:10.1242/bio.20122527
[23] Bilinski, T., Paszkiewicz, T., & Zadrag-Tecza, R. (2015). Energy excess is the main cause of accelerated aging of mammals. Oncotarget, 6(15), 12909–12919. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.4271
[24] Casares, M., Honegger, R. E., & Rubel, A. (1995). Management of giant tortoises Geochelone elephantopus and Geochelone gigantean at Zurich Zoological gardens. International Zoo Yearbook, 34(1), 135–143. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1995.tb00671.x
[25] Global, S. D. Z. (2010). Galapagos tortoise fact sheet. Retrieved January 31, 2017, from http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/galapagos_tortoise/tortoise.htm
[26] Curtin, A. J., Zug, G. R., & Spotila, J. R. (2009). Longevity and growth strategies of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in two American deserts. Journal of Arid Environments, 73(4-5), 463–471. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.11.011
[27] Hayflick, L. (1965). The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 37(3), 614–636. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(65)90211-9
[28] Goldstein, S. (1974). Aging in vitro. Experimental Cell Research, 83(2), 297–302. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(74)90342-5
[29] Hayflick, L., & Moorhead, P. S. (1961). The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 25(3), 585–621. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(61)90192-6
[30] Harley, C. B., Futcher, A. B., & Greider, C. W. (1990). Telomeres shorten during ageing of human fibroblasts. Nature, 345(6274), 458–460. doi:10.1038/345458a0
[31] Girondot, M., & Garcia, J. (1999). Senescence and longevity in turtles: What telomeres tell us. 9th extraordinary meeting of the societas Europaea Herpetologica, 1, 25–29. Retrieved from //www.researchgate.net/publication/252290006_Senescence_and_longevity_in_turtles_What_telomeres_tell_us
[32] Miller, J. K. (2001). Escaping senescence: Demographic data from the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis). Experimental Gerontology, 36(4-6), 829–832. doi:10.1016/s0531-5565(00)00243-6
[33] Schächter, F., Cohen, D., & Kirkwood, T. (1993). Prospects for the genetics of human longevity. Human Genetics, 91(6), . doi:10.1007/bf00205074
[34] Warner, D. A., Miller, D. A. W., Bronikowski, A. M., & Janzen, F. J. (2016). Decades of field data reveal that turtles senesce in the wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(23), 6502–6507. doi:10.1073/pnas.1600035113

House Dust Causes Fat Gain? Shocking New Lab Test Results

by Leah Zerbe @ Dr. Axe

House dust causes fat gain? I know it may seem far-fetched, but those little dust bunnies hiding under your couch are housing much more than pesky pet hair and microscopic pieces of dirt. A 2017 study published in Environmental Science & Technology suggests everyday household chemicals lurking in dust could be acting as obesogens — obesity–promoting compounds... Read more »

Australis Show Some Cheek Blush Dreamy Review

by Neha V @ Makeupandbeauty.com

Hi girls, I had reviewed “Fame” from this range on IMBB before, and now, I am going to review “Dreamy, which is a soft pink shade with a dash of shimmer from Australis Show Some Cheek Blush. Read on for more details: Product Description: The Show Some Cheek blush by Australis Cosmetics is a fabulous […]

The post Australis Show Some Cheek Blush Dreamy Review appeared first on Makeupandbeauty.com.

Dietary Choline producing Anticholinergic symptoms

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

This is a copy of a post I posted in another thread about my Cyclothymia. The strangeness of the situation prompted me to make it a thread as I cannot find any online references.

-----

 

Right, so for the last few weeks I have effectively removed all major sources of Choline from my diet or supplements. I was testing what effect Choline has on me since like I said supplementary Choline of 200-300mg gave me "mixed results".

 

A couple of days ago I introduced some boiled eggs back into my diet which coincided with the slow start of what seemed to be another depressive swing. Could be coincidence. Yesterday I turned it up a notch and downed 200g of rabbit liver and 2 eggs throughout the day: over 1000mg of choline from 2 ingredients alone. I was feeling particularly agitated and irritable in the afternoon, my thoughts were racing uncontrollably and songs were playing in my head on loop. At the Gym I noticed some irregular heartbeats, mild vertigo and the feeling that my breathing wasn't doing much. The trainer walked up to me twice to ask me if I was doing ok. I was also more self-conscious than usual.

 

While eating soup and looking directly into the reflection in the bowl I saw parallel lines forming across the diameter of the bowl. I looked up to see if it was a reflection but there was nothing but a clear sky. I looked back down and the lines slowly faded out.

 

At night I took a half-hour walk around the neighborhood and saw a number of things in the corner of my eye, one giving me a short panic and I became afraid a rabid dog was about to jump me. The feeling of being watched (by the people in the houses) was persistent and I was also startled and sensitive to bright lights and loud noises from passing cars.

 

Sleeping was more difficult than normal as it was impossible to stop thinking about something. The sleep itself was not restful, filled with odd fever dreams waking me up constantly.

 

This morning I had some odd bowel movements, loose stools and appalling flatulence but also experienced a symptom I haven't had in a while. Urinary retention. A difficulty squeezing out everything from the bladder. This is what prompted me to hit "choline" and "urinary retention" into google and found the wikipedia page on 'Anticholinergic' which states "Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body".

 

It also lists a number of associated symptoms, many of which I experience frequently. I have color-coded the list based on my experience and the <<< indicates reemerging of symptom since reintroducing dietary Choline.

 

  • Poor coordination <<<
  • Dementia
  • Decreased mucus production in the nose and throat; consequent dry, sore throat <<<
  • Dry-mouth with possible acceleration of dental caries
  • Stopping of sweating; consequent decreased epidermal thermal dissipation leading to warm, blotchy, or red skin
  • Increased body temperature
  • Pupil dilation (no clue); consequent sensitivity to bright light (photophobia) <<<
  • Loss of accommodation (loss of focusing ability, blurred vision – cycloplegia) <<<
  • Double-vision
  • Increased heart rate <<<
  • Tendency to be easily startled <<<
  • Urinary retention <<<
  • Diminished bowel movement, sometimes ileus (decreases motility via the vagus nerve) [<<<mild]
  • Increased intraocular pressure; dangerous for people with narrow-angle glaucoma. (left eye has long-time astigmatism, not sure if related)

Possible effects in the central nervous system resemble those associated with delirium, and may include:

  • Confusion <<<
  • Disorientation <<<
  • Agitation <<<
  • Euphoria or (dysphoria <<<)
  • Respiratory depression <<<
  • Memory problems <<<
  • Inability to concentrate <<<
  • Wandering thoughts; inability to sustain a train of thought <<<
  • Incoherent speech <<<
  • Irritability <<<
  • Mental confusion (brain fog) <<<
  • Wakeful myoclonic jerking
  • Unusual sensitivity to sudden sounds <<<
  • Illogical thinking <<<
  • Photophobia <<<
  • Visual disturbances <<<
    • Periodic flashes of light <<<
    • Periodic changes in visual field <<<
    • Visual snow
    • Restricted or "tunnel vision"
  • Visual, auditory, or other sensory hallucinations
    • Warping or waving of surfaces and edges <<<
    • Textured surfaces <<<
    • "Dancing" lines; "spiders", insects; form constants
    • Lifelike objects indistinguishable from reality
    • Phantom smoking
    • Hallucinated presence of people not actually there
  • Rarely: seizures, coma, and death
  • Orthostatic hypotension (severe drop in systolic blood pressure when standing up suddenly) and significantly increased risk of falls in the elderly population.

In particular, Visual Snow, Dancing Lines and Orthostatic hypotension have always troubled me. They have not resurfaced yet but I am half-expecting them to.

 

 

This is strange considering Choline is by definition the opposite of Anticholinergic, yet it seems that high intake, or even continuous moderate intake, of dietary and supplementary choline gives me clear Anticholinergic symptoms. All but the rarest in fact. Could my body be reacting paradoxically to Choline by downregulating acetylcholine or its receptors? Does that even make sense?

 

I am going to phase out all major sources of choline from my diet once more for a week and see if my symptoms improve. If so, I will consider ALCAR as an alternative to Choline supplementation.

 

What type of probiotic for TH17-autoimmunity to decrease (brain) inflammation?

by @ Health

I've been trying to interpret studies as to what type of probiotics are counterindicative in autoimmunity

 

E.g. let's say I have autoimmune reactions when TH17 cells get activated I should probably avoid probiotics that are pro-TH17. 

 

Please read:

 

 

Specifically, B. bifidum IF10/10, A8, DSM20239 and LMG13195 strains showed the highest production of IL-17 

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024776

 

Therefore, it is generally recognized that the anti-inflammatory effect of probiotics in IBD is linked to the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokine production https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4613231/

 

 

Lactobacillus acidophilus Suppresses Colitis-Associated Activation of the IL-23/Th17 Axis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417982/

 

Now my interpretation is if you have autoimmune disease involving TH17 (autism/candida) you may want to stay away from Bifidum IF10/10 and related or you end up with lots of inflammatory cytokines. However, Lactobillus acidophilus seems to suppress this. 

 

My question, do you interpret this similarly or am I misreading this (difference in vivo/vitro)? 

 

My own experiences with probiotics show similarities (Breve/longum = negative reaction, inflammation but Rhamnosus/Acidophillus seems ok)

 

Any input appreciated!

 

 

 

 

Rosacea: Why Me? Why Anybody? - Sydney, Australia

Rosacea: Why Me? Why Anybody? - Sydney, Australia


RealSelf.com

I was diagnosed with Rosacea recently, and it is horrible. I have tried many types of treatment, and am still actively seeking a suitable and efficacious...

New Report Reveals Majority of Sunscreens May Harm Cyclists - Health I.Q.

New Report Reveals Majority of Sunscreens May Harm Cyclists - Health I.Q.


Health I.Q.

A new study of 750 sunscreens done by EWG (Environmental Working Group), revealed that over 75% of sunscreens on the market are not effective in guarding skin cancer and have harmful chemicals that may harm skin.

Infusion and Injection of NAD+

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

I am posting this thread because I have heard positive feedback about the IV drip infusion of NAD+. NAD+ is delivered through intra venous infusions in slow drips into the bloodstream in this process.

 

There are two main uses for this. First to reduce alcohol and drug dependency in addiction rehab clinics, Rehab clinics claim an unmatched success rate of close to 90 percent. However the second use is what interests me today. Luxury clinics in posh cities also offer drip formulations of NAD+ but for Anti Aging purposes. Here the success rate hasn't been formally assessed but there are nonetheless claims of great benefits and testimony to support this.

 

Having taken NR for some time, alone as well as with other supplements, I noted benefits from its oral intake. Also, I am familiar with the scientific reserves regarding the bioavailability of NAD+ directly added into the bloodstream, that pertain to its ability to enter individual cells and bring the expected benefits. However, IV drip administration of NAD+ has been shown to provide a measure of effectiveness under medical supervision, therefore a case can be made for the administration of NAD+ versus taking none, or only taking its precursors such as NR.

 

Given that for the purposes of personal testing of this hypothesis I do not have a budget allowing for a large number of IV drips to be administered, I have instead procured 20mg of 99% pure NAD+ powder from a well known reseller of research chemicals. Unable to personally administer IV infusions safely, I plan to instead test this substance by the closest alternative administration, Intramuscular Injection. Prior to this I need to ascertain the following:

 

- what liquid in which to dilute and suspend the NAD+

- what dosage to administer

- what frequency to inject

- how to conserve the mixture

 

I plan to start the IM injections fairly soon and would appreciate any advice or input regarding any of these questions. In the absence of advice to the contrary, I initially plan to use injectable saline solution, and to inject daily dosages at 20mg week 1, 50mg week 2, 100mg week 3. Increases in dosage will be conditional to the absence of negative side effects from lower dosages.

 

I look forward to your suggestions and advice.

 

DareDevil

The 8 Best Foundations for Sensitive Skin (Cruelty-Free Options)

by Aly Laughlin @ Cruelty-Free Kitty

As someone who almost never uses foundation because of how sensitive my skin is, I can completely relate to the struggle of finding a good foundation for sensitive skin. If I use the wrong product, my face can literally break out in hives! But in the name of science, I’ve tried out many foundations over […]

The post The 8 Best Foundations for Sensitive Skin (Cruelty-Free Options) appeared first on Cruelty-Free Kitty.

Fake tans that aren't green looking

by mynameisezza @ beautyheaven - Suncare

I used to be an avid st tropez tan user for years and years but I feel its throwing a really green shade on my yellow based skin tone. I dont know if the formula changed or what? my beautician feels she has the same problem.

Bondi sands, whilst a nice tan, does this a little bit to me too. But not as bad as st tropez.

Loving tan was good, its seems more red based, but its not cheap and a bitch to wash off. It really has staying power that one.

Anyone tried the minetan range. I think that's next on my list...... it has a caramel shade, violet shade etc. I was told violet can be good if the green based tans dont work. Any one got any feedback on this range?

Or some other good ones?

138

What type of probiotic for TH17-autoimmunity to decrease (brain) inflammation?

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

I've been trying to interpret studies as to what type of probiotics are counterindicative in autoimmunity

 

E.g. let's say I have autoimmune reactions when TH17 cells get activated I should probably avoid probiotics that are pro-TH17. 

 

Please read:

 

 

Specifically, B. bifidum IF10/10, A8, DSM20239 and LMG13195 strains showed the highest production of IL-17 

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024776

 

Therefore, it is generally recognized that the anti-inflammatory effect of probiotics in IBD is linked to the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IL-17 cytokine production https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4613231/

 

 

Lactobacillus acidophilus Suppresses Colitis-Associated Activation of the IL-23/Th17 Axis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417982/

 

Now my interpretation is if you have autoimmune disease involving TH17 (autism/candida) you may want to stay away from Bifidum IF10/10 and related or you end up with lots of inflammatory cytokines. However, Lactobillus acidophilus seems to suppress this. 

 

My question, do you interpret this similarly or am I misreading this (difference in vivo/vitro)? 

 

My own experiences with probiotics show similarities (Breve/longum = negative reaction, inflammation but Rhamnosus/Acidophillus seems ok)

 

Any input appreciated!

 

 

 

 

NARS Velvet Lip Glide Review & Swatches

by Karima McKimmie @ Shameless Fripperies

So… Hi! I’ve been a bad beauty blogger but let’s not dwell. Instead, let’s talk about the new NARS Velvet Lip Glide formula, which NARS claims ‘glides like a gloss, cloaks like a lipstick, blends upon contact’. If you’re over the whole matte liquid lipstick trend, good news: It’s not a matte liquid lip. I’m not […]

The post NARS Velvet Lip Glide Review & Swatches appeared first on Shameless Fripperies.

Cryonics Hardship Fund

by @ Articles

Cryonics is a method of ‘medical time travel’ - placing the body in biostasis after legal death with the hope that future technology will be invented which can revive the body. To most people who share LongeCity’s mission cryonics is the ‘second worst thing’ that can happen to you, but nonetheless a viable alternative to burial or creation.

Cryonics prices vary (an overview can be found on this page maintained by Cryonics expert and LongeCity Advisor Ben Best) but it is affordable to nearly everyone via life insurance… nearly everyone. A few people who really want cryonics cannot get life insurance: After an accident, LongeCity Member James Swayze found himself quadriplegic and unable to get insurance. The life of LongeCity Member William O’Rights took a turn for the worst when he was diagnosed with aggressive throat cancer after having been suddenly deprived of all funds. Kim Suozzi was 23 and had not yet heard about cryonics when she was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. Aaron Winborn heard of her case - and cryonics- only when the debilitating effects of Lou Gehrig's Disease had already begun to paralyse him. All these people were eventually offered a cryonics provision through the generous donations of others in our community.
We want to continue this proud tradition, looking out for those who share our common dream in unlimited lifespans, in the shadow of imminent death and despair.

However, this needs to be done carefully. It cannot be stressed enough that cryonics is affordable to most people if they only have the foresight to act early and arrange affordable life insurance. This element of personal responsibility is at the heart not just of cryonics. If we establish a hardship scheme, it must not create a moral hazard, and incentive to put things off as too unpleasant and complicated to think about until it is too late. Of course, we must also ward against fraud and abuse. An element of careful analysis and due diligence is therefore required, looking into the circumstances of each individual case.

The LongeCity cryonics hardship fund has two purposes:
1) To support a (volunteer based) infrastructure for maintaining the scheme and exercising the due diligence mentioned above
2) When a hardship case has been endorsed by LongeCity, we will use the hardship fund to help to fundraise for that individual by matching further donations. All these donations will go to a dedicated account for that person’s cryopreservation, never to the individual directly.

Applicants to our cryonics hardship fund must
- co-operate fully with LongeCity appointed auditors and reviewers
- genuinely be unable to not fully fund their cryosuspension and not have a reasonable chance of doing so prior to their likely death
- help to fundraise for their cause and help raise public awareness for cryonics

In the past, we have partnered with our friend in the Venturist community on cryonic hardship cases. We hoping to do so again on future occasions.



Click HERE to make a contribution to the fund

To apply email the full details of your case: contact@longecity.org

The Insidious Problem of Bad Science...

by @ ImmInst Active Topics

So there's this philosopher that I'm really not a fan of who you probably have never heard of, Jacques Derrida, who is one of great unseen architects of modern society. He created a very insidious virus - not a literal virus but a very viral idea; a mind virus, an intellectual contagion. And ideas are powerful, aren't they?
 
His idea, to summarize, was that civilization must be burnt down. Completely. That civilization was utterly corrupt to it's core and like a house hollowed out by termites should just be burnt down to the ground.
 
He had what was likely a very traumatic childhood growing up as a French Jew in Algiers during world war two. Obviously, his brain had some major malfunctions yet he had that Jewish verbal intelligence, capacity to craft persuasive prose and a bit of French charm and swagger.
 
He was the father of deconstructionism, which is quiet possibly the worst idea ever.
He believed that virtually everything about civilization was bad and beyond saving.
Democracy and republicanism was terrible and had to go.
The church and religion was terrible and had to go.
The family and the way we raise children was especially terrible and had to go.
Science and mathematics was terrible and had to go.
Even rationality and logic and was terrible and had to go.
 
He wrote 40 books which contain all sorts of egregious inconsistencies and contradictions, he response when confronted with this was that rationality and logic were at the core of this system of oppression(aka civilization) and that he would not be constrained by them.
 
And in the world traumatized by the second world war, many fertile minds bought what he was selling. He was a tremendous influence on many schools of thought that arose in the second half of the 20th century; post-modernism, cultural Marxism  anthropology, feminism, social sciences, applied linguistics, etc
 
His mind virus found a powerful ally of convenience in the KGB. After world war two communist spies successful infiltrated the inner sanctums of power in Western countries. The KGB worked very discretely to infiltrate and place those infected with the virus into positions of influence in academia, government, media and Hollywood and the virus spread.
 
Now that you know about this virus, you'll see it everywhere; out in public on the streets, on TV, at your workplace, at your school, it really is prolific. If you turn on the news right now, you won't need to watch long to see unwitting disciples of Derrida who today in 2017 are still hellbent on burning civilization to the ground.
 
Less conspicuously the virus has had a terrible yet hidden effect on the integrity of science. The sad truth is that some domains of science have abandoned logic and reason just like Derrida did.
 
I've began a video series that's a whole lot more practical about how we can tell the difference between bad science and good science.

My Top 5 SPF50+ PA++++ Japanese Sunscreens for 2016

My Top 5 SPF50+ PA++++ Japanese Sunscreens for 2016


RatzillaCosme

Right. If you’ve followed me on the site for a while, then you will know that it’s time for my annual Japanese sunscreens ranking. I’ve been doing one every year in April/May sinc…

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